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Full text of "Canada west : 350,000,000 bushels wheat in 1915 : Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta"

50,000,000 BUSHELS WHEAT IN 1915 

MANITOBA— SASKATCHEWAN— ALBERTA 

ISSUED UNDER DIRECTION OF THE HON. W. J. ROCHE, MINISTER OF THE INTERIOR, OTTAWA, CANADA. 



NO CONSCRIPTION; NO WAR TAX ON LAND 

IN CANADA 

Every Canadian Soldier is a Volunteer and Canada's 
War Expenses are Raised by an Increase of 
Customs Tariff and Stamp Tax. 



Canada is a self-governing country 
and her participation in the present 
European war has been pmely volun- 
tary'. The revenue necessary to meet 
the expense is being raised by an in- 
crease of seven ami :> half per cent added 
to the customs tariff, taxation of hanks, 
loan companies, a tax on railway and 
steamship tickets, telegrams, postal 
matter, patent medicines and propri- 
etary articles. The farm lands of 
Canada arc free from any war tax and 
the farmers exempt to draw the wealth 
from the rich productiveness of the 
soil, without contributing to the war 
expenses, except as outlined above. 
Immense areas of Western Canada are 
yet open for free homesteads. Land 
of the same quality that has produced 
for the settlers now there from thirty 
to sixty bushels of wheat and sixty to 
one hundred bushels of oats to the acre, 
is available, the only cost being a 
ten-dollar entry fee. 

Who is Eligible. The sole head of 
a family or any male eighteen (IS) years 
of age or over, who is a British subject 
or who declares his intention to become a 
British subject; a widow having minor 
children of her own dependent upon 
her for suppert. 

Acquiring Homestead. To acquire 
a homestead, applicant must make 
entry in |>erson, either at the Dominion 
Lands Office for the district in which 
the land for which application is made 
is located, or at a sub -agen cy authorised 
to transact bu-iness in such district. 
At the time of entry a fee of ten dollars 
($10.00) mast be paid. The certificate 
of entry which is then granted the 
applicant gives him authority to enter 
upon the land and maintain full posses- 
sion of it as long as he complies with 
the homestead requirements. 

Residence. To earn patent for 
homestead, a person must reside in a 
habitable house upon the land for six 
(6) months durine each of throe (.'I) 
years. Such residence, however, need 
not be commenced before six (<i) months 
after the date on which entry for the 
land was secured. 

Improvement Duties. Before being 
eligihle to apply for patent, a home- 
steader must break (plouch up) thirty 
(30) acres of the homestead, of which 
twenty (20) acres must be cropped. 
It is also required that a reasonable 
proportion of this cultivation be done 
during each homestead year. In some 
cases substitution of stock, in lieu of 
cultivation, is allowed. 

Application for Patent. When a 
homesteader has completed his resi- 
dence and cultivation duties, he makes 
application for patent before the agent 
of Dominion Lands for the district in 
which the homestead is located, or 
before a sub-agent authorized to deal 
with lands in such district. If the 
duties have been satisfactorily per- 




Ottawa, Ontario. 

8th January, 1916. 

Through either lack of knowledge or 
from some ulterior motive numerous papers in 
the United States have recently advised 
American citizens that by going to Canada 
they incurred the risk of being drafted as 
soldiers in the present world-wide war. "Were 
these articles confined only to that portion 
of the pro-German press, which without regard 
to the truth, have been publishing fictitious 
news items intended to imjure the trade or 
stir up friction between the States and Canada 
the reports might safely be let go uncontra- 
dicted, but when responsible Journals are mis- 
led into publishing erroneous information re- 
garding conscription it seems advisable to 
make an official pronouncement upon the 
matter. 

I, therefore, beg to advise you that 
all troops from Canada for the war have gone 
voluntarily; that while the Government has 
the power to enforce conscription, such action 
has not been considered either advisable or 
necessary, and that even were conscription 
introduced it would apply to Canadian citizens 
only. 

For your information when dealing 
with this subject, I may say that many 
Canadians resident in the United States and 
many American citizens have crossed into 
Canada since the outbreak of war, have 
offered their services, been accepted, did 
valuable work and in some cases gave up 
their life in the cause of liberty and 
justice. 




Minister of the Interior. 



Fac-simile of letter sent by Hon. Dr. Roche, Minister of Interior of 
Canada, to United States Papers 



formed, a pateDt is issued to the home- 
steader shortly after without any further 
action on his part, and the land thus 
becomes his absolute property. 

CUSTOMS REGULATIONS 

A settler may bring into Canada, 
free of duty, live stock for the farm on 
the following basis, if he has actually 
owned such live stock abroad for at 
least six months before his removal to 
Canada, and has brought them into 
Canada within one (1) year after his 
arrival, viz: If horses only are brought 
in, sixteen (1G) allowed, if cattle are 
brought in, sixteen (Hi) allowed ; if sheep 
are brought in, one hundred and sixty 
(1G0) allowed; if swine are brought in, 
one hundred and sixiy (160) allowed. 
If horses, cattle, sheep and swine are 
brought in together, or part of each, 
the same proportions as above are to 
be observed. 

Duty is to be paid on live stock in 
excess of the number for which provision 
is made as above. For customs entry 
purposes a mare with a colt under six 
(6) months old is to be reckoned as one 
(1) animal; a cow with a calf under six 
(G) months old is also to be reckoned 
as one (1) animal. Cattle and other 
live stock imported into Canada are 
subject to quarantine regulations. 

The following articles have free entry: 

Settlers' effects, free, viz: Wearing 
apparel, household furniture, books, 
implements and tools of trade, occupa- 
tion or employment; guns, musical 
instruments, domestic sewing machines, 
typewriters, live stock, bicycles, carts 
and other vehicles, and agricultural 
implements in use by the settler for at 
least six (G) months before his removal 
to Canada, not to include machinery 
or articles imported for use in any 
manufacturing establishment or for 
sale; also books, pictures, family plate, 
furniture, personal effects and heirlooms 
left by bequest; provided that any 
dutiable articles entered as settlers' 
effects may not be so entered unless 
brought with the settler on his first 
arrival, and shall not be sold or other- 
wise disposed of without payment of 
duty until after twelve (12) months' 
actual use in Canada. 

The settler will be required to take 
oath that all of the articles have been 
owned by himself or herself for at 
least six (6) months before removal to 
Canada; that none have been imported 
as merchandise, for use in a manufactur- 
ing establishment or as a contractor's 
outfit, or for sale; that he or she intends 
becoming a permanent settler within 
the Dominion of Canada and that the 
"Live Stock" enumerated is intended 
for his or her own use on the farm which 
he or she is about to occupy (or culti- 
vate), and not for sale or speculative 
purposes, nor for the use of any other 
person or persons. 



For Particulars as to reduced railway fares and settlers' rates on stock and effects; for information of any 
|nature relative 1<> Western Canada and the wonderful opportunities being offered to new settlers, write the 
learest of the following Canadian Government Agents in the United States: 

UNITED STATES AGENTS 



. V. MacINNES, ITS Jefferson Ave., Detroit, Mich. 
. J. BROUGHTON, Room 412, 112 W. Adams St., Chicago, 111. 
EORGE A. HALL, 123 Second St., Milwaukee, Wis. 
. A. GARRETT, 311 Jackson St., St. Paul, Minn. 
RANK H. HEWITT, 5th St., Des Moines, Iowa. 

G. ROUTLEDGE, 301 E. Genesee St., Syracuse, N. Y. 
J. S. NETHERY, 82, Intcrurban Station, Columbus, Ohio. 
. A. LAURIER, Marquette, Mich. 
W. AIRD, 215 Trac t ion-Terminal Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 
E. BLACK, Clifford Block, Grand Forks, N. D. 



J. M. MacLACHLAN, Drawer 197, Watertown, S. D. 

W. V. BENNETT, Room 4, Bee Bldg., Omaha, Neb. 

GEO. A. COOK, 2012 Main St., Kansas City, Mo. 

J. L. PORTE, Room 6, Dunn Block, Great Falls, Mont. 

J. N. GRIEVE, Cor. 1st and Post Srs., Spokane, Wash. 

J. E. La FORCE, 1139 Elm St., Manchester, N. H. 

L. N. ASSELIN, Biddeford, Me. 

MAX A. BOWLBY, 73 Tremont St., Boston, Mass. 

P. A. HARRISON, 210 North 3d St., Harrisburg, Pa. 

GILBERT ROCHE, Canadian Gov. Exhibit, San Diego, Cal. 



J. C. KOEHN, Mountain Lake, Minn. 




Western Canada 



THE PRIZE WHEAT 
BELT of the WORLD 



An Average Wheat Yield of 30>£ Bushels to the Acre 
for the Entire Country 

40 and 50 Bushels of Wheat to the Acre Common in 1915 



r ' — I* IK) 




ESTERN CANADA has justly earned the proud distinction of 
being classed as The Prize Grain Belt of the World. In 
quality competition, the world's championship wheat and oats 
were grown in Canada. Now, Western Canada proves that 
championship-quality goes hand-in-hand with championship- 
quantity. An average wheat yield of 30>2 bushels to the 
acre over the three provinces, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and 
Alberta, in 1915, constitutes a record that has never been 
reached anywhere else in the world. The reports of yields, 
printed in other pages, show these to have been remarkable, many farmers securing as high 
as 70 bushels per acre, and a large number getting 40 to 50 bushels per acre, 75 to 115 
bushels of oats to the acre, and these were quite common. Affidavits showing these immense 
yields have been secured. What should be especially pleasing is that much of this was grown 
by Americans whose friends may now be reading these pages. 

Of wheat, oats, barley and flax the entire value would be over $530,000,000. Wheat 
in the middle of January, 1916, was worth over one dollar per bushel on the farm. 

With a production of 350,000,000 bushels of wheat selling over the dollar mark, the 
aggregate return to the farmers of Western Canada is approximately $350,000,000. 

The population of the three prairie provinces which produced this wealth is in round 
figures 1,500,000. Of these, 500,000 live in the cities and towns and are not producers in an 
agricultural sense, leaving 1,000,000 people to comprise the rural population who produced 
this $350,000,000 crop of wheat. This means $350 for every man, woman and child in 
Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta who comprise the farming population. Taking an 
average of five persons to a family, it means $1,750 income to every family from wheat alone. 

Taking into account, also, the yield of oats, barley, flax, rye, peas, potatoes, etc., and 
the production of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and other live stock, one can without exagger- 
ation arrive at the conclusion that the average income per family throughout the prairie prov- 
inces for the season of 1915 has been from $3,000 to $4,000. 

Many individual farmers in 1915 have secured value to the extent of $10,000 to $15,000 



from their crops in Western Canada. 



2 



CANADA WEST 



REMARKABLE DEVELOPMENT IN AGRICULTURE IN WESTERN CANADA 



AN AMERICAN PAPER BEARS WITNESS TO THE EXTRAORDINARY OPPORTUNITIES 



The Northwestern Agriculturist, of Minneapolis, Minn., in 
a recent issue expresses the conviction that results obtained 
in farming in western Canada have far exceeded any predic- 
tions made as inducements to would-be settlers to take up land 
in CANADA'S GREAT PRIZE WHEAT BELT. 

Crops have been far greater than expected, and land values 
have gone up so rapidly that fortunes are made in a few years. 

The article reads as follows: 
W hen a man in the States was told a few years ago that 
he could secure as a free homestead 160 acres of land that 
would produce from 20 to 40 bushels of wheat, or 60 to 80 
bushels, of oats per acre, he was skeptical; or that he could pur- 
chase lands at from $8 to SI 2 per acre, without residential 
duties, he was doubtful. The homesteader now has land 
worth from §15 to S70 an acre, 
and the man who purchased has 
seen his land double in price in 
four years' time. Both have 
found that the story of remark- 
able yields has been verified. 
They have had crops exceeding 
those promised; they have seen 
oats that have exceeded 100 
bushels to the acre, and have 
grown wheat that averaged 40 
and as high as 50 bushels to 
the acre, and their wheat was 
not a 5S-pound to the bushel 
article, but 62 and 63 pounds. 
They have seen within the past 
year or two trunk lines of rail- 
way constructed through their 
district, and t hrowing out branch 
lines to the gates of their farms." 

FIGURES THAT REVEAL THE 
MAGNITUDE OF WESTERN 
CANADA GRAIN CROP 

Reverting to the estimated 
wheat yield of Manitoba, Sas- 
katchewan and Alberta — 304,- 
200,000 bushels — it is considered 
that some 40,000,000 bushels 
will be required for seed, domestic 
consumption, etc., leaving 
264,000,000 bushels for export. 
Some idea of what this means 
may be gathered from the fol- 
lowing: 

(a) — 264,000,000 bushels = 15,840,000,000 lbs. = 7,920,000 
tons of wheat, to move which there would be required 198,000 
40-ton freight cars loaded to their fullest capacity; 198,000 
cars if placed in line together would make a train 1511 miles 
long or one extending from Winnipeg to Salt Lake City. These 
can would cover every mile of a 4-track line from Chicago to 
Des Moines, Iowa, with 15 miles to spare. 

They would reach from Winnipeg through Milwaukee, Chi- 
cago, Cleveland, Buffalo and Albany to the Grand Central 
Depot in New York City. Allowing 35 cars to a locomotive, 
it would require 5,657 locomotives to haul 198,000 cars and 
5,657 trains running at intervals of five minutes would take 
more than 19J^ days to pass a given point. 

Cb) — The full cargo capacity of S. S. "Missanabie" or 
" Metaguma" is 250,000 bushels of grain. Therefore it would 
require a fleet of 1,056 ships as large as the "Missanabie" or 




Corn is now being successfully grown in many parts and excellent 
wheat yields follow its cultivation. 



"Metagama" to transport across the Atlantic the enormous 
quantity of surplus crop produced by Canada's three Prairie 
Provinces. Fancy what an "Armada" that would be! 

(c)— 264,000,000 bushels of wheat = 15,840,000,000 lbs. 
15,840,000,000 lbs. wheat- 280 = 56,571,421 barrels flour; 
56,571,421 barrels flour X 175 = 9,899,998,675 loaves of bread! 
24 oz. each. Enough bread to give 27,123,284 people one loaf 
of bread per diem for a whole year. 

CAUSES OF BIG YIELDS OF GRAIN IN WESTERN CANADA 
—SOIL, CLIMATE AND GOOD CULTIVATION 

The grain crops of Western Canada in 1915 may truly be 
said to be phenomenal, and many different reasons are now 
being advanced. The first of these is the light crop of 1914, 

which left a great deal of nour- 
ishment for the crop of 1915. 
The second is that more land 
was well prepared for crop in the 
fall of 1914 than- in any other 
fall in the history of the province. 
This certainly had a beneficial 
effect on the crop. A liberal 
rainfall in the month of June wa3 
also advantageous. Another 
reason suggested by close stu- 
dents of agriculture is that the 
wheat crop year bore a wonder- 
ful bloom. Practically every 
cell of the wheat head was 
fertilized and each head filled 
wonderfully well. 

Those who have given the 
matter careful thought say that 
there is no reason why Western 
Canada should ever have small 
average yields. Farming is now 
becoming more of a science than 
it ever has been, and with the 
knowledge of what Western 
Canada soils can do, and the 
proper application of labor and 
the conservation of the soil prop- 
erties there is no reason why 
these lands should not always 
produce good crops. These 
things considered, there are 
those who prophesy continued 
heavy yields in all portions of 
Western Canada. Take the 
year 1915, for instance. |There are many cases reported of a 
farmer in a district getting fifty to fifty-five bushels of wheat 
per acre. His neighbors having the same soil, the same amount 
of rainfall, got but thirty. And why? Might it not have 
been the difference in cultivation. There is no question that 
breaking or summer-fallowed land always gives better results 
than fall or spring ploughed land. Yet one of the unaccountable 
things of 1915 crop was the excellent yield reported from 
"stubblcd-in" pieces. As high as 45 bushels per acre in some 
cases, and this is generally considered the poorest kind of farming. 



The figures in the opposite column are esti- 
mates of Dec. 1, 1915. Since then a revision 
shows the wheat crop of Manitoba, Saskatch- 
ewan and Alberta to be nearly 400,000,000 
bushels. 



CANADA WEST 



3 



WESTERN CANADA HOLDS 

FREE HOMES FOR MILLIONS. THE LAND SITUATION 
IN WESTERN CANADA 

The following tables will give a quick conception of the 
possibilities for settlement in Western Canada. In January, 
1915, less than one-half of the Total Land Area of Manitoba, 
Saskatchewan and Alberta had been surveyed. Of a Total 
Area in the three provinces of 454,7S9,67S acres, the Surveyed 
Area embraced 195,341,726 acres. 

The Total Area Surveyed and Available For Homestead 
Entry was 28,075,000 acres. 

This is equivalent to over 175,000 quarter-sections of 160 
acres each, any one of which was open for entry to the first 
qualified person making application. 

35,000 Free Farms Awaiting Settlers in Manitoba 

Total Land Area 143,570,698 Acres 

Total Surveyed Area 34,558,979 Acres 

Area under Homesteads 7,795,000 Acres 

Area Available for Homestead Entry 5,575,000 Acres 

50,000 FREE FARMS 
Awaiting Settlers in Saskatchewan 

Total Land Area 152,340,320 Acres 

Total Surveyed Area 79,218,076 Acres 

Area under Homesteads 32,118,000 Acres 

Area Available for Homestead Entry 8,000,000 Acres 

90,000 Free Farms Awaiting Settlers in Alberta 

Total Land Area 158,878,678 Acres 

Total Surveyed Area 81,564,671 Acres 

Area under Homesteads 20,456,000 Acres 

Area Available for Homestead Entry 14,500,000 Acres 



There is no War Tax on Land and no Taxes 
of any nature on Farm Stock, Implements, Chat- 
tels or Buildings. Western Canada wants the 
farms improved and therefore improvements are 
not taxed. 



WORLD'S CHAMPIONSHIPS 

WHAT WESTERN CANADA HOMESTEADERS HAVE 
DONE IN WORLD'S COMPETITIONS 

The homesteaders of western Canada, in competition with 
those of the rest of the agricultural world, have demonstrated 
that the best grains and the best stock are being raised in the 
provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. 

The homesteaders of these provinces are entering the arena 
of the keenest agricultural competitions on this continent, 
pitted against the wealthiest farmers, ranchers and cattle 
kings and carrying off all the big prizes. 

W hat the homesteader is doing is best demonstrated by the 
following achievements of the past few years: 

1911 AND 1914 WORLD'S BEST WHEAT 

Thousand-Dollar Gold Prize — Xew York Land Show, — and 
International Soil Products Exhibition, Wichita, Kan. Won by 
Seager Wheeler, Rosthern, Sask. 

1912 BEST BUSHEL HARD WHEAT 

Dry Farming Congress, Lethbridge, Alta. — Rumley Engine, 
value 82,500. Won by Henry Holmes, Raymond, Alta. 

1913 BEST BUSHEL HARD WHEAT 

Dry Farming Congress, Tulsa, Okla. — A threshing machine 
won by Paul Gerlach, Allen, Sask., with 71.1 oz. to the bushel. 
1911-13-14 WORLD'S BEST OATS 

Colorado 81,500 Trophy — Won outright by J. C. Hill & Sons, 
Lloydminster, Sask., with one peck of "Abundance Oats." 
Mr. Hill has asked permission to donate a similar prize of 
equal value, to be known as the "Canadian Trophy." 

1915 FIRST AND SECOND IN HARD WHEAT— THIRD 
FROM CANADIAN SEED GRAIN— FIRST IN ALFALFA 

At The International Dry Farming Congress, Denver, Colo., 
the World's Sweepstakes for the best bushel of hard spring 
wheat shown at the International Products Exposition, was 
awarded to Seager Wheeler, of Rosthern, Saskatchewan. 

The prize for the second best bushel of wheat also went to 
Saskatchewan, being won by J. S. Fields, of Regina. The 
tnird prize exhibit was not grown in Canada, but was raised 
from seed imported from Saskatchewan. 

The display of alfalfa was of the finest, W. A. Abbott, Maple 
Creek, Sack., taking first place in a class of twenty entries. 



Western Canada hog prices 
axe higher than those 
of Chicago 



Canada's barley-fed hogs 
make 200 lbs. at 
six months 



4 



CANADA WEST 



WESTERN CANADA'S GREAT DEVELOPMENT 



THE increase in wheat production in Western Canada in the last few years is but an index of the great 
development which is bound to follow in the next decade. The truth is that Canada's wheat lands have 
been discovered, and nothing can stem or turn aside the stream of immigration that has set in from 
the United States and European countries. 

Those who come now may get cheap or free lands, and choice of location, according to their means, and will 
soon be in a position to take advantage of the era of prosperity that is assured for the future. 

The land is going quickly, but there are millions of acres still left, as productive and fit for settlement as 
any already taken, and which are being rapidly reached by railways. 



WESTERN CANADA HAS A HOME FOR YOU IN 
THE PRIZE WHEAT BELT OF THE WORLD 

In the olden days all roads led to Rome, but to-day they 
lead to the Empire where wheat is King, — The Prize Wheat 
Belt of Western Canada. 

A careful investigation shows that conditions for settlement 
are better and the opportunities greater than they were ten 
years ago. At that time settlers had to go farther from the 
line of railway than they have today, in addition to which 
markets have improved and farmers are getting better prices 
than ever before. 

While there is today a great world-wide demand for wheat 
and the acreage is increasing rapidly; while, moreover, great 
efforts will have to be made to keep pace with the demand for 
this, the most important of our cereal crops, there is at the 
same time a wonderful opening in the western provinces of 
Canada for mixed farming. The domestic market for butter, 
eggs, milk, vegetables and meat is one of the best in the world, 
because most of these commodities are being imported in large 
quantities and prices are consequently high. There is no 
doubt about the demand, neither is there any question that 
people who know how can produce all these commodities with 
profit to themselves and advantage to the consumer. 

The wheat areas of the world are becoming exhausted or 
utilized for other crops. Consumption of wheat is increasing 
at a greater rate than production, and this era of high prices 
will continue. This scarcity is Canada's opportunity, and she is 
quickl/ taking a leading place in the wheat-producing nations 
of the world. The problem of our agriculture 
is the problem of supplying bread to the ever- 
increasing millions of America and Europe, and, 
while marvellous strides have been made in the 
facilities for transportation of agricultural prod- 
ucts, yet the real solution of the problem is 
bringing the population to the food, rather than 
the food to the population. The vision that 
meets us here is one of ample land awaiting 



man, and of possibilities of agricultural production which can 
be realized only by increased immigration. Before and above 
all of what transportation has done, and may yet do to carry 
agriculture away, the more reasonable prospect is the settle- 
ment of these wide areas by a population cultivating the soil 
which this great country has. 

THE WAY TO LOOK AT IT 

After you have harvested your crop from land that is worth 
anywhere from $75 to $200 per acre, and you do not own a 
great deal of that, not nearly as much as you desire, possibly 
you are renting a farm, paying the greater part of your hard- 
earned money to the landlord; or, again, it may be that you 
are working on a farm with no prospects, or very slim ones 
at the most, of ever owning a home of your own, in a country 
where land values are greatly beyond your means of obtaining, 
it is then you turn your face to some newer place where there 
is more room for you, where you can get from 500 to 1,000 
acres of the finest agricultural land in close proximity to a 
market, for the price you can sell that 100 acres of yours back 
home. If you are a renter, it is possible to get a farm of your 
own, either free, by way of a homestead of 160 acres from 
the Dominion Government, or to purchase land close to the 
railway centres at such low prices and long terms, that it is 
less by far than your rent would be in the old settled districts, 
where you are at present living, with the further advantage 
that every little payment you make brings you that much 
closer to having your own home and farm. In the event of 
your working on a farm in western Canada, 
you are able to get very high wages during 
the summer and harvest months, then put in 
the winter on your homestead. At the end 
of three years, when you receive title from 
the Government, a railway will have been 
built close to your land, increasing the value 
so greatly that you will be comparatively 
independent. 




A Jersey herd on a Western Canada farm. 



It will be noticed that there is magnificent natural shelter, 
market for all dairy products. 



There is a splendid 



CANADA WEST 



5 



A LAND FULL OF PROMISE AND AMPLE REALIZATION 




Looking the landscape over in the Edmonton district. This is a field of oats cut green for feed. 
The crop cures in the stock and makes excellent winter feed for horses and 
cattle at low cost, three tons to the acre being common. 



CANADA WEST 
is a mighty re- 
gion comprising 
over a million square 
miles; magnificent 
plains, great fresh 
water lakes and broad 
streams, sheltering 
groves, tree-fringed 
water courses, and 
primeval forests, hills 
and grassy dales, high- 
lands', mountains, 
snow-capped peaks, 
and park-like valleys. 
All this is Canada 
West. The American 
farmer looking north 
toward Canada feels 
the significance to hu- 
manity and to himself 
of this vast region, the 
multitude of fives to 
which it can bring 
happiness and success, 

and the great constructive role it is to play toward a world 
broken by destructive forces. 

Thoughts such as these have resulted in dotting the vast 
stretches of Canada West with homesteads, farms, villages, 
towns, and cities, have covered broad plains with waving grain, 
and stretched a network of railways in every direction. 
Canada West is no longer a great uninhabited expanse. To 
every district the railroads have brought the conveniences of 
modern civilization and the means of communication with 
all parts of the world. To the advantages of a sturdy pioneer 
life are here added those of the most advanced social com- 
munities. Modern methods of agriculture mean ease for the 
farmer of Canada West, his family has every home comfort and 
social advantage and his children are assured the best of school- 
ing. And still the area in Canada West is so vast that in the 
three provinces, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, only 
eight per cent of the land is being tilled. Thousands of 160-acre 
free homesteads await the energetic enterprise of the practical 
home-maker to transform them into wealth-producing lands and 
bring him independence and success. 

The conditions governing such occupation are simple and 
easy. After the filing of a claim and the payment of a ten 
dollar entrance fee, the only requirement for complete owner- 
ship is residence on the land for six months each year during 
three years. There are great level prairies to be obtained in 
this way which will make ideal grain-growing areas and from 
which record crops of wheat can be raised with unprecedentedly 
small expenditure of time, effort, and money. Oats, barley, 
and flax, can also be raised successfully on these broad plains. 
Vast tracts of such land in exceedingly desirable portions of 
these three provinces are yet untenanted. Hundreds of thou- 
sands of farmers from the United States have filed on these 
lands and, as has been said, there are hundreds of thousands 
more available vacant homesteads yet to be filed on. There 
thej' find certain and rich returns on their investments, and 
they can look forward to a rosy future, before, so uncertain. 

Large areas of untenanted lands are adapted to mixed farm- 
ing. There is abundant water and fodder for the cattle which 
thrive on the rich grasses. Such cattle as are brought to the 
boundary for importation by settlers are inspected and any 
animals exhibiting signs of disease are not permitted to enter 



the country. The 
standard of health in 
this respect is very 
high and rigidly main- 
tained to protect the 
cattle stock of the 
farmers already in the 
provinces. 

Dairying is carried 
on extensively and 
with highly successful 
results, the rich milk 
testifying to the nu- 
tritive quality of the 
abundant grasses on 
which the cattle feed. 
Creameries for the 
manufacture of butter 
and cheese are numer- 
ous and prosperous. 

The same qualities 
of soil that fatten the 
large herds of cattle 
are favourable also to 
sheep raising, a pursuit 
which has assumed large proportions in this country. Many of 
the valleys of British Columbia are particularly well suited to 
mixed farming and large crops of potatoes and hay as well as 
wheat and oats are raised. In this province fruits of all kinds, 
of unusual flavor and excellence, are grown. The Pacific Ocean 
is a large contributor to the wealth not only of British Columbia 
but of the great central expanse lying between it and Hudson 
Bay. Strong air currents carry heat and moisture from the 
ocean and in many parts influence the winter temperature to 
such a degree that cattle and horses may pasture out through 
the entire year. 

Home building is easy and inexpensive since timber is to be 
found in large quantities in the forest-lands and timbered 
stretches throughout the provinces. 

All these facts point to the wisdom of securing agricultural 
lands such as these, which will yield larger profits than almost 
any other in any region. The wide acres of Canada West 
will amply reward ordinary care in working, and surpass in 
productiveness, when scientifically treated, much of the valuable 
land of the United States. 

Now is the time to choose the best tracts of land. The 
demand for food stuffs will soon pass all precedents, and 
Western Canada has been provided by nature with every 
advantage for supplying the demand. The radiant sunshine, 
the well distributed rains, the deep fertility of the soil, the 
ease and rapidity of production, all point to it as the im- 
portant food producer of the world. The demand from Europe 
for years to come will be great and insistent. The world 
must turn to these vast untenanted lands for preservation upon 
which thousands are yearly taking up residence. 

Towns and cities spring up, and railroads penetrate in every 
direction to bear away vast harvests to the world's markets. 
The scheme of speculators to allow lands to lie idle while wait- 
ing for an increase in value is no longer tenable. The value of 
these lands is now in their great productivity, in the actual 
crops the}' can produce. The call is now for the energy and 
initiative of the practical farmer, the producer the man who 
knows how to make the land yield its riches, and to whom the 
world looks for support. 

If there is any one fact more than another regarding Canada 
that has in recent years been heralded abroad, and that has 
served to attract attention to the Dominion, it is the almost limit- 
less expanse and the immense fertility of her western prairies. 



6 



CANADA WEST 



THE WHEAT CROP OF WESTERN CANADA IN 1915 WAS 350,000,000 BUSHELS 



THE EFFECT OF THE WAR 

"A Growth for Canada in the next Thirty Years 
Greater than that for any Part of the Continent." 

Extracts from an address by C. W. Barron, of the Wall Street 
Journal before the Canadian Club of Toronto: 

"There are only two great unturned arable soils in the world 
to-day awaiting human occupation. These are in Russia and 
the upper part of the North American continent. 

"Now when it comes to the settlement of this war — the 
settling up and the settling down — you know or ought to know 

who has the land and where the 

future settlements will be! You 
are 7^ of the North American 
continent in population and you 
have more than 7% of the rail- 
road mileage. In respect not 
only to railroads, but in some 
political and financial aspects, 
you are better off than we are in 
the t inted States. The govern- 
ment here aids and helps to fi- 
nance j our transportation. You 
have a homogeneous govern- 
ment. You are protected on two 
sides by the oceans; on the north 
by nature; and on the south you 
have no Belgium and no Ger- 
many. You are protected on the 
south because no one would think 
of going through your southern 
boundary. You are the best 
protected people in the world! 
What better situation can you 
think of, when you ask who is 
going to get the material benefits 
in the settlements after the war? 
What you need is more mineral 
development, more agricultural 
development, more transporta- 
tion, more people; and all these, 
it seems to me, you will get 
after the war. 

"I don't want to swell your 
pride too much by telling you 
how tremendous will be the 
material results to you after this 
war. We have not in the United 
States the available arable land 
that you have. You have pro- 
portionately more railroads; and 
so long as a country needs for 
its prosperity freedom, good 
position, you are the one people 
who have the land, with the 
government, and good transportation, you are in a favoured 
position, right climate, and transportation, and you are ready 
to invite the whole world to come in. 

"In the next generation you will not be 7% of the North 
American people in population and growth but a far larger 
part. I see a growth for Canada in the next thirty years greater 
than for any part of this continent. Indeed, I think you will 
grow in the next thirty years faster, broader, and greater than 
any part of this continent ever has grown in any thirty years. 

"The United States will profit by the lessons of the war in 
the world-competition. In this the futures of the United 
St.it* - and Canada lie along the same path. Both have expe- 




The complete fall operations on every farm 



rienced the impetus of war business. The physical features of 
the two countries are the same, with the difference that Canada's 
resources have scarcely yet been touched." 

CANADA'S UNDEVELOPED FIELD 
A Winnipeg paper, with a well-known reputation for con- 
servatism in economic matters says: 

"Canada's undeveloped field should prove a mighty factor 
after the war in adjusting the country's business from one 
period to another. Agriculture, moreover, must continue to be 
the basic source of the nation's prosperity. The staggering figures 
of this year's crop, showing increases in production of 50 per 

cent over last year, give a slight 
idea of the future wealth stored 
in vast stretches of prairie plain 
yet untouched by the plough. 
The estimates of the crop for 
1915, made during August and 
September by authoritative 
people in the West, who are 
usually right in their calcula- 
tions, have all been revised to 
meet the phenomenal returns 
from the threshers. The Do- 
minion Government on Septem- 
ber 13, estimated the western 
wheat crop at 275,772,200 
bushels, but on October 15 
those figures were changed to 
304,200,000 bushels. At least it 
would seem now that the wheat 
crop of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, 
and Alberta for the year 1915 
would amount to more than 
350,000,000 bushels." 

MONETARY RETURNS FOR 
THE WESTERN CROP 

The amount of money which 
the West is receiving for its grain 
has not yet been wholly appre- 
ciated. Up to the 10th December 
the Canadian West had received 
some 170 million dollars for 182 
million bushels of its grain crop, 
of which 149 million bushels was 
wheat. 

True, the shadow of war is still 
upon us. But hostilities are six 
thousand miles away — where we 
propose to keep them. Inter- 
nally, the land is at absolute 
peace. Military efforts have 
all been voluntary, and conse- 
quently have not disorganized 
the ordinary business of the coun- 
try. Economists tell us when 
the war is over no country will 
be in better shape than Canada, 



because our prosperity is not dependent upon the war, or upon 
the market for luxuries, but upon our production of food, which 
Europe must consume, whether at war or at peace. 

Western Canada is the last great area of cheap, fertile land 
with democratic government and a white man's climate. When 
the present upheaval settles down, the rush for such land is 
sure to be tremendous. The thoughtful settler is the one who 
foresees events, makes his decision and selects his farm in 
advance of the multitude. And every settler who brings to 
Ganada the means necessary to a modest start, combined with 
enterprise, intelligence, and good citizenship, can look forward 
with the fullest confidence to prosperity and happiness. 



CANADA WEST 



7 



CANADA'S WONDERFUL PROGRESS 



IT IS OVER THE HILL— SPLENDID BANK CLEARINGS — CROP RETURNS REVEAL 

VAST POSSIBILITIES FOR FUTURE. 

"There are opportunities for investment in Canada now that may prove attractive to American capital. 
Land prices in the West are low and wa^es less than on this side of the line, and whatever the outcome of the 
war, the future of the Dominion is assured as one of prosperity in the development of its vast resources." 

— Chicago Tribune. 

country must suffer a relapse, and straightway return to a 
state of inactivity and hard times. The grain shipments have 
been the biggest in the history of Winnipeg and in the history 
of the twin ports, Fort William and Port Arthur. The mail 
order houses have had a big year, the rush of fall orders ex- 
ceeding all previous years and taxing the capacity of these estab- 
lishments, whose most sanguine expectations have been exceeded 
by the actual business done. 

The tide has turned in Western Canada. The people of the 
West are forging ahead, forging ahead in actual production and 
in creation of wealth, giving generously to charitable and other 
funds, paying up their back debts, while going along carefully as 
regards any creation of new debts. They are economizing but 
not scrimping, acting cautiously but not miserly. The financial 
heads of Eastern Canada, of the United States and of Europe 
are no longer criticizing Western Canada; rather they are un- 
stintedly offering their praise and their compliments. The 
financial press recognizes that the tide has turned in Western 
Canada, and it has been published to the world. 

The condition of Western Canada at the close of 1915 is one of 
optimistic prosperity, backed by the same determination of 
western people to go on increasing their productiveness and 
maintaining the records which they have already established. 
The trade revival of Western Canada is the happiest feature in 
the business survey of the whole Dominion for 1915 and in the 

outlook for 1916. 



A SHORT time ago the Canadian Government asked for pri- 
vate subscriptions to a loan of 50 million dollars. Less 
than a month was given for completion of the subscription. 
On November 30th, the day upon which subscriptions were to 
cease, it was found that 110 millions of dollars had been sub- 
scribed, or 60 million dollars more than the amount asked. 
If there were any so pessimistic as to imagine that Canada was 
passing through a period of hard times the wonderful showing of 
this subscription should put aside all doubts of Canada's rapidly 
increasing prosperity. 

The trade revival in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta is 
an actuality and not a myth. There is to-day a spirit of opti- 
mism in the air, just as two years ago there prevailed the oppo- 
site spirit of pessimism. 

A general trade revival has been felt in every department of 
business in the Prairie Provinces. The agriculturists are in better 
shape than they have ever been before in their lives. No farm- 
ers of any country are in better financial condition and in a more 
general state of prosperity than are the farmers of Manitoba, 
Saskatchewan and Alberta. The farmers have harvested a 
record crop — a crop which enriches them to the extent of some- 
thing nearly $550,000,000. 

In the cities the prosperity of the country has been reflected. 
Everywhere business is on the hustle. The wholesalers and the 
retailers and the implement dealers find business good. The 
banks and other collection 
houses find collections satis- 
factory, and financial men 
declare that westerners are 
paying up their debts. 

In Winnipeg the bank clear- 
ings have been the largest in 
history, some weeks exceed- 
ing the figures of Montrealand 
Toronto. For 1915, they were 
a billion and a half of dollars, 
representing business on a per 
capita basis or* over §7,000 
per head for every man, 
woman, and child in the city, 
and have gone ahead of big 
manufacturing cities like 
Buffalo, and run a close 
second to Detroit; it has 
6hown bigger bank clearings 
than the middle west cities of 
Minneapolis and Duluth, and 
has exceeded Los Angeles, 
Seattle, and other noted 
shipping centres. It is now 
6ide by side with the ten 
biggest cities in North Ameri- 
ca in amount of bank 
clearings. 

But because the war helped 
Canada recover quickly from 
a natural economic depres- 
sion it does not follow that, 
at the end of the war, the 



Canada 
A Self-Governing Country 

There is no War Tax on Land nor is there any 
Conscription. 



Canada is a part of the British Empire. The duties of the government 
are divided between the Dominion and the provinces. The system is popularly 
termed " Responsible Government." Every government official is fully and 
entirely responsible to the people for every administrative act of himself and 
colleagues. This, more than any other form, places the people inlmore direct 
and absolute control. 

The Dominion owns and controls the administration of the public lands 
in the three Central provinces and throughout Northern Canada. The 
responsibility for their development rests upon the Dominion Government 
which therefore assumes the work of promoting immigration. The Dominion 
Parliament makes and enforces the criminal laws, controls the militia, post 
office, railways, indirect taxation by the tariff and excise, trade relations with 
other countries, and, speaking generally, all matters of national concern. 

The Provinces are governed by legislatures elected by the people. They 
have "Responsible Government" on the same principles as the Dominion 
Government. They are charged with providing the civil law and administering 
both civil and criminal laws. They provide for education and municipal 
government and for direct taxation in their support, and generally all matters 
of a purely provincial or local character. 

Military Service in Canada is Not Compulsory 

Any contribution to Greit Britain, whether in money or men, is entirely 
voluntary. There exists, though, such a friendly feeling to the mother 
country, that as in the case of the European War, voluntary contributions 
are given with the heartiest good will. It would be possible for Canada to 
remain entirely neutral, but to do so would not be natural. It, therefore, 
rests absolutely with oneself whether he care to take up arms. There is no 
War tax on land. 



One of the best indications 
possible, of increased pros- 
perity financially in a com- 
munity is the meeting of 
liabilities, and the clearing off 
of mortgages, notes, etc. 
Inquiries made by some of 
the loan companies indicate 
that conditions in this respect 
are of a highly satisfactory 
nature. 

. The representative of one 
large loan company which 
does a big business covering a 
large area in the West, states 
that over 80 per cent of the 
arrears owing a short time 
ago had recently come in. 
Farmers are not only clean- 
ing up their liabilities so far 
as the interest is concerned, 
but they are very keen to 
pay up their principal, and 
insist upon it being taken. 

This is a condition that is 
to be found all through 
Western Canada. And why 
not? With almost every far- 
mer having a crop of wheat 
of from 30 to 40 bushels per 
acre, and realizing from 
$27.00 to S36.00 per acre in 
cash, and on land that cost 
him probably less than half 
this — why shouldn't he be in 
comfortable circumstances? 



8 



CANADA WEST 



WESTERN CANADA'S 1915 CROP AVERAGES $1500 TO EACH FARMER 



WHAT THE SOIL WILL PRODUCE 

THE soil in western Canada is, generally speaking, a black 
or brown chocolate loam with a clay subsoil, and is con- 
ceded to be the best cereal producer in the world, and, 
incidentally, it is quite easily cultivated, as the country for the 
greater part is open. It will grow successfully anything in the 
shape of grain, grasses, fruits 
and roots that can be raised 
wF in the western part of the 

Ur$* * United States, with the pos- 

sible exception of field corn 
and a few of the more tender 
varieties of garden truck and 



CLIMATIC CONDITIONS 

AN important consideration to those who are not familiar 
with the country is the question of climate, which has 
often been much misrepresented. A former Governor- 
General of Canada, the Marquis of Lome, once said; "The climate 
has honest heat in summer and honest cold in winter. The sun 
is seldom hidden, and men 
see many seasons and are 
healthy, strong and active." 
Owing to the dryness of the 
atmosphere and the amount 
of sunshine, people do not 
mind the cold as much as 




In some of the newer districts of Western Canada are to be found attractive spots for mixed farming. Mixed farming can be carried on 

with the greatest degree of success, with pleasure and profit. 



fruits. These latter will, however, very soon be raised in 
great quantities and with equal results to those obtained in 
the older settled districts of the east and south. It is but a 
matter of having the land settled and brought under cultiva- 
tion, in this way changing climatic conditions by turning over 
the soil to the sun's rays. The principal and most profitable 
crop now grown is wheat. The quality of this product of 
western Canada has been amply demonstrated by the flour 
milling concerns of Canada, the United States, and, in fact, 
the world, the better grade of flour being obtained by mixing 
Canadian No. 1 Hard wheat with the softer 
grades of other countries. The soil will raise 
anything up to fifty bushels of wheat per acre, 
though the average for the three' prairie 
provinces is not so high as that. 

Oats are also a very rich crop, heavy yields 
being the rule. In some districts that are 
specially adapted for the growing of this cereal, 
great success is met with. Other very suc- 
cessful and important crops are flax and barley. 
Rye and peas also have a very luxuriant 
growth. Potatoes are very easily grown, as 
are turnips, mangels, and all field crops of a 
kindred nature. 

Fruit growing is receiving some attention in 
the more thickly settled districts and those giving it their time 
are reaping a handsome reward. Apples and plums, though not 
grown extensively, have in many sections of the west matured in 
season and are of good quality. Raspberries, strawberries, and 
currants of various varieties are receiving considerable attention, 
and a great number of farmers are growing them for the market, 
which in this case, as in most all other lines, is much greater 
than the supply, thus always assuring good prices. 

The productiveness of the soil, and the easy terms upon 
which land may be acquired from the government, or purchased, 
guarantee the success of the man who is willing to work and 
take advantage of the possibilities that Western Canada affords. 



Hon. Dr. Roche has given 
official denial to the statement 
that there is conscription in 
Canada or likely to be. None 
but Canadian citizens could 
possibly be included, and it 
takes three years' residence to 
become such. Neither is there 
any War Tax on land. There 
is no tax of any kind on stock, 
chattels or improvements on 
farms. 



the readings of the thermometer might lead the inexperienced 
to believe. Ordinary, healthy people enjoy it, but in winter 
they wear good warm clothing out of doors. 

The climate of parts of Alberta, even far north of Peace River 
valley, is much modified by the chinook winds, which, tempered 
by the warm Japanese current of the north Pacific, blow through 
the passes of the Rocky Mountains and sometimes, even in 
mid-winter, make the climate extremely mild. In an ordinary 
season, horses and cattle thrive on the open ranges all winter, 
though provident farmers keep a supply of hay on hand for 
all emergencies. 

Considered broadly, the summers of the 
Canadian West are characterized by high day 
temperatures and an abundance of sunshine, 
the winters by clear, cold weather. Usually 
spring advances very rapidly, for though the 
mean temperature during April and May may 
be in the neighbourhood of 35°, the daily 
maximum would be at least 10° to 12° higher. 
The annual precipitation over the whole area 
is comparatively fight, but is somewhat greater 
for the first than for the second and third 
prairie levels. In a general way, the rainfall 
becomes lighter as we proceed westward. The 
greater part of the rain over the district, however, 
falls' during the growing season, and hence is particularly effective 
agriculturally. The distribution has been found one that, for the 
most part, is well adapted to the production of the finest quality 
of wheat. In considering the climate of the Canadian prairies, 
the fact should not be lost sight of that, although the total 
annual precipitation averages only 13.35 inches for the provinces 
of Saskatchewan and Alberta and 17.34 inches for Manitoba, 
the amount falling between April 1 and October 1 ia 
respectively 9.39 inches and 12.87 inches, or 70.3 and 74.2 
per cent of the whole. The average, 12.87 inches, in Manitoba 
is not far short of the average for Ontario during the same 
six months. 



CANADA WEST 



9 



SUCCESS ACHIEVED BY VARIOUS METHODS 



THE new man is not looked upon as an intruder but as a 
produeer of new wealth, an enricherof the commonwealth. 
The new man should buy his tools as he needs them. 
Until he has more than thirty acres under crop he can work 
with a neighbour, in exchange for the services of a binder. 
A cow is a good investment, and a vegetable garden easily 
pays its own way. 

The Man Who Has Less Than $300.— Had better work for 
wages for the first year. He can hire out to established farmers 
and thereby gain a knowledge of agricultural methods. 

The Man Who Has $600.— Get hold of your 160-acre free 
homestead at once, build your shack, and proceed with your 
homestead duties. During the six months that you are free to 
absent yourself from your homestead, hire out to some successful 
farmer and get enough to tide you over the other half of the 
year which you must spend in residence upon the land. When 
you have put in six months' residence during each of these years 
and have complied with the improvement conditions required 
by the Land Act, you become the absolute owner. 

The Man Who Has 51,000. — Either homestead a farm or 
purchase one on the installment plan, and get to work at once. 
A small house and out-buildings will be required, with horses 
or oxen, a plough, a wagon, etc. Working out in the harvest 
season will be necessary to bring in money to tide over the winter 



T. Lewis, of Chas. Lewis & Co., Minneapolis, one 

of the largest grain brokerage firms in the United States 
says: "It looks to me as if Canada was in for a big boom." 



4 milch cows at $65. . . 260.00 

4 hogs at $15 60.00 

4 sheep at $8 32.00 

poultry 10.00 

miscellaneous tools. . 20.00 
100 bushels oats at 40 cts. 40.00 
10 bu.seedpotatoesat$l 10.00 
seed wheat and oats 100.00 
unforeseen items. . . . 60.00 
Total $1,500.00 



and get the crop sown in good condition. As the crop grows, 
opportunity is given to make the house comfortable, to look 
around and plan ahead. 

What $1,500 Will Buy. — No farmer should come expecting 
to make a homestead pay its own way the first year. He needs 
buildings, an equipment, and money for the maintenance of 
himself and family until his first harvest can be garnered. 
After securing his land and putting up his buildings, $1,500 
w ill give him a fairly good equipment to begin with. This will 
probably be expended as follows: 

3 good horses $475.00 

1J4 set harness 45.00 

1 combination plough.. . . 30.00 

1 disc harrow 36.00 

1 drag harrow 18.00 

1 seeder ." . . . 90 00 

1 mower 65.00 

1 rake 30 00 

1 strong wagon 94.00 

1 set sleighs 25.00 

If the settler locates early in the season he may 
get in a crop of potatoes or oats in May or early 
June. 

Will a Quarter-Section Pay?— "Will the tilling 
of a quarter of a section (160 acres) pay?" when 
asked of those who have tried 
it provokes the invariable an- 
swer that "It will and does 
pay." "We, or those follow- 
ing us, will make less than that 
pay, " said one who had proved 
up on a homestead. Another 
pointed to the fact that many 
of those who commenced on 
homesteads are now owners of 
other quarters — and even larg- 
er areas, showing that they 
have progressed in obtaining 
more land, while others still 
have stuck to the homestead 
quarter-section. 



Shall You Buy, Rent or Homestead?— The question is one 
that Canadian Government officials are frequently asked, 
especially in the homes of a family of boys who have become 
interested in western Canada. If the young man has grit and 
inexperience let him homestead. Treating this subject in a 
newspaper article, a correspondent very tersely says, "He will 
survive the ordeal and gain his experience at less cost." 

Another has ample knowledge of farming practice, experience 
in farm management, but lacks pluck and staying power 
and the capacity to endure. The food for thought and 
opportunity for action provided by the management of an 
improved farm would be just the stimulus required to make 
him settle into harness and work out his own salvation. 

Many men make excellent, progressive, broad-gauge farmers 
by renting or buying an improved farm in a settled 
district and keeping in touch with more advanced thought 
and methods. 



Every Young Man Wants a Farm For Himself. There 
is an unprecedented demand for farm labour in Western 
Canada. Wages from $30 to $40 a month, with board 
and lodging during spring, summer and fall seasons. 
A young man's earnings and experience should in two years 
establish him on a homestead, thereby soon becoming 
one of Canada's prosperous and contented settlers. 




Let the boy take the route that appeals to him. Don't force 
him to homestead if he pines to rent. Don't try to keep him 
at home if homesteading looks good to him. The thing to 
remember is that success may be achieved by any one of the 
three routes. If the foundation is all right, hard work the 
method, and thoroughness the motto, it makes little difference 
what road is taken — whether homesteading, buying, or 
renting — western Canada is big enough, and good farming 
profitable enough. 

■ It is not only in cereals that the Western Provinces of Canada 
make such a wonderful showing, but the possibilities in other 
ways are great. The success of the vegetable crops has awak- 
ened a new interest in the possibilities of canning vegetables for 
export, and it is not unlikely that future years will see some of 
the largest vegetable canneries on the continent located in the 
prairie provinces. Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta are 
contributing largely to the dressed meat exports of the Dominion, 
the packing plants of the prairie provinces are fast becoming of 
remarkable importance in Canada. Efforts have 
been made to impress upon the agriculturists of 
Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta the importance 
of increasing the dairy output, so that there will be 
sufficient production to permit of export. They can 
do the producing in such quan- 
tities as would permit of enor- 
mous exports of butter and 
cheese, and unlimited markets 
arc available all over the world. 




These horses have never been stabled 



NO PASSPORT is re- 
quired on entering or leav- 
ing Canada. Every fa- 
cility is accorded desir- 
able settlers to secure 
best information as to 
location of homesteads. 



14 



CANADA WEST 




Authentic Reports From All Parts 



TO THE average Araercan farmer, the reports of forty, fifty and sixty 
bushels to the acre wheat crops are almost incredible. The names 
and addresses of many Western Canadian farmers who have harvested 
these yields are given. To those who cannot believe these reports, 
it is suggested that they communicate direct with any of the farmers in Canada, 
and get further convincing proof that Western Canada is the prize grain belt 
of the world— championship holder of both quality and quantity records. 

Wheat Over Six Feet High. — M. N. Cadwell, of Windom, Cottonwood 
County. Minnesota, in a letter published in the Windom Reporter says: 

"In western Saskatchewan we found the oat harvest about done, and a wheat 
crop ready for harvest that made a good yield of from 25 to 65 bushels per acre. 
Some wheat that was sown on stubble, nothing done only sown with a drill, 
made a yield of from 25 to 35 bushels per acre. Oats the same, 50 bushels 
per acre. I drove the binder twelve days. Some of the wheat was very thick 
and stood over six feet high." 

Bin Yields Ila\e Made Him Independent.— Wm. H. Simpson of Minburn, 
Alberta, started on a homestead seven years ago bringing $1,000 worth of 
settlers' effects. To-day he has 527 acres of land worth $25 to S30 per acre 
and good buildings. The land, stock and cash would be worth around $20,000 
to $1,000 seven years ago, and the most crop he had in any one year was 150 
acres. He always worked his land well and got well paid for it. 

Started with Nothing Now Clears S3, 000 Annually. — F. D. Yager of 
Kenaston, Sask., states: "I came to this country in the spring, 1906, from 
Chicago, with practically nothing. I took up a homestead which I proved up 
and then bought three quarter-sections which I am now farming. It is all 
under cultivation and I clear about $2,000 every year. I have put about 
$3,500 worth of improvements on the land in the shape of buildings and 
have one of the finest homes in the northwest. My land has doubled in value 
in the last six years but it is not for sale. The climate in this part of Canada I 
think is the healthiest in the world, and the winters getting milder every year." 

An ex-Pennsylvanian Wants More Neighbours. — Writing in April, 1915, 
(before he threshed his bountiful crop in the fall) wrote: "I have proved up 
on one quarter and have eighty acres ready for crop and have four good horses, 
and if I get a good crop this year will be out of debt. Where could you go to 
do that in four years, starting without any money? 

"I was raised in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, the garden spot of that 
State, and this has just as good a chance to be as good. All we need is a lot 
more farmers." Charles E. Reel, of Youngstown, Alta. 

11(14 Wheal Averaged 59 Bushels and in 1915 Went 45 to the Acre. — 
W. Mcllvide & Sons of Rumsey, Alberta, in a letter dated December 14, 
1915, says: "In 1914 we had 59 bushels of wheat to the acre, and 87 bushels 
of oats. In 1915 our wheat went 45 bushels to the acre, and oats went a 
little over 90 bushels, just drilled in on stubble and harrowed once. This 
was on the same. land that the wheat was raised on in 1914. In 1913 the 
wheat went 43 bushels to the acre. 

"We came here with one team of oxen, one team of horses, and machinery. 
At that time we had six head of cattle, now we have 52 head of horses and 
48 head of cattle besides what we have sold each year. We had 350 acres 
in crop this year, and have 580 acres ready for crop next year. 

"We value our holdings at $50,000. This has all been made right on the 
land. Our wheat graded for 1913 to 1915 No. 1." 

Never Had a Crop Failure.— August Pearson of Rumsey, Alberta, has 
every reason to feel satisfied he moved to Western Canada. He says: "I 
homesteaded here in 1909 and had nothing at all. Now I have a well improved 
place, mostly broken up, and 11 head of horses. I am worth about $8,000. 
.Since I came here I have not had a crop failure, and if this land is farmed right 
a person is practically sure of a good crop every year. In 1913 my wheat 
went 35 bushels per acre, in 1914 it went 43 bushels, and in 1915, 44 
bushels. My oats also went 75 bushels to the acre." 

Wheat Averaged 47 Bushels to the Acre.— A neighbour of Pearson's 
writes as follows: "I came in hen; in 1903 and took a homestead and have 
bought three quarters of land since then. I have been raising stock and 
found this an A. 1 stock country. The last six years I have been growing grain 
as well. I never had a crop failure, wheat has averaged 30 bushels per acre 
and oats 80 bushels during this time. In 1915 my wheat went 47 bushels 
and In 1914 a little over 30 bushels." 



Started Farming with $32. — Ole Stensrud of Weldon, Sask., has proved 
that by working and saving a man can start farming with a small capital. 
He writes: "After filing on my homestead I had $32 cash. I now have a 
half-section of land with 100 acres broken, 28 head cattle, 27 sheep, 9 horses 
14 hogs, implements enough to do my work, and am on a fair financial 
standing." 

Wants Others to Reap Profits. — Valdemar Mortenson and his brothers 
went to Western Canada in 1908, worked out as hired hands, and eventually 
homesteaded at Delia, Alberta. Mr. Mortenson says: 

"We have 245 acres under cultivation — all splendid wheat land — and are 
increasing the cultivated area each year. We have 30 head of horses, full 
equipment of implements and machinery, and do not owe a cent to anybody. 
We had a surplus of about $1,000 last year and have nearly all of the 1914 
crop of wheat and oats in our granary yet; worth from $2,500 to $3,000. We 
have not speculated in anything, but earned our start by our own labour. 
Had we embraced the very great opportunities our district affords for making 
money through cattle and hog raising, we could have made a good many 
thousand dollars in the 6 MS years we have been here with very little additional 
effort, but as things are we have reason to be satisfied. 

"When I look back over the narrow span of 6J-3 years which it has 
taken to gain a comparative independence here, I realize that if the great 
opportunities of this West of ours were more widely known, many would seek 
homes here which they can never hope to gain elsewhere. Many people who 
came here five or six years ago, with no other capital than their ability and 
willingness to work, own their own homes and farms to-day, but those who 
had some money have generally done better in proportion." 

64}^ Bushels of Wheat to the Acre. — L. P. Zaczkowski of Spring Lake, 
Alberta, got 643^ bushels of wheat per acre from 12 measured acres. His land 
was manured and summer-fallowed, ploughing six inches deep. It was harrow- 
ed over four times, seeded on the 6th of April, two and a half bushels per 
acre. 

Had 93 Bushels of Oats to the Acre. — "In 1915 I sowed 43 acres of 
wheat from which I got 1,200 bushels of wheat, which is 27 bushels and 39 
pounds from an acre. Had 17 acres of oats but threshed only 8 acres, from 
which I got 650 bushels, an average of 93 bushels to the acre. Ten acres I 
stacked for green feed. Jacob Goetz, (formerly of South Dakota) now of 
Piapot, Sask." 

Wheat 40 to 55 bushels to the acre. — A former American, now a resi- 
dent of Golden Prairie, Sask , says: 

"This year the crops were immense. In our locality wheat went from 
40 to 55 bushels per acre, oats about 80 bushels on an average. We had 
about 100 bushels of potatoes on about a quarter-acre of ground. Gardens 
were fine all over. I picked out 12 potatoes that weighed 30 pounds and 
this potato patch was cultivated only once. Last winter I turned the 
horses out to rustle their living and they were in fine shape in the spring. But 
I had a fine patch of corn this year and some corn-fattened hogs too. There 
are schools in almost every district now. When I first came up here on almost 
every half-section stood a little 12x14 shack, now almost everyone has real 
modern houses and barns. Since I have been here there has been no snow 
to slay until after Christmas. Horace Blake." 

Large Yields Common in All Parts.— While on his recent visit to Travels, 
Alberta, Canada, Robert Mathews obtained the following statements from 
farmers in the Travers district of the yield of their crop for the past season: 

I. H. Hooker, 82 acres wheat, 3,820 bu., 64 lbs. per bu. 

1. I. Lee, 40 acres wheat stubble, 1,500 bu.; 40 acres wheat, summer 
fallow, 2,530 bu. of wheat. 

Peter Brandon, 164 acres wheat, 7,361 bu. 

R. Marandi, 135 acres wheat, 6,920 bu. 

Ole. Chrestoferson, 50 acres wheat, 2,647 bu. 

Anifhus Gavett, 155 acres wheat, 6,642 bu.; 30 acres oats, 2,000 bu. 

Robert Mathews. 46 acres wheat, 2,016 bu., machine measure. 

A. H. Dahl, 50 acres wheat, 1,850 bu 

D. Dunbar, 130 acres wheat, 5,925 bu. 

Inguald Hoppy, 80 acres wheat, 2,800 bu., all stubble. 

Louis Kragt, 80 acres wheat, 4,000 bu. 

W. J. Pate, 26 acres wheat, 980 bu. 

W. Roeniche, 15 acres wheat, 5,337 bu., 80 of this stubble. . 
J. C. McKinnon, 50 acres wheat, 2,536 bu. 
Gordon Swinehart, 30 acres wheat, 1,140 bu. 
Allien Hanson, 85 acres u heat, 3.760 bu. 

Elmer Hamm, HO acres wheat, 5,158 bu.; 90 acres oats, 6,550 bu. 
John Larson, 80 acres wheat, 3,000 bu.; 30 acres oats, 2,000 bu. 
John Hecklin, 37 acres wheat, 1,484 bu. 

Wm. Hecklin, 100 acres wheat. 3,376 bu., stubble and breaking. 
O. Salisbury, 50 acres wheat, 1,600 bu. on breaking. 
The above statements here made in my presence this 9th day of December, 
1915 — 

(Seal) O. Salisbury, Notary Public. 



CANADA WEST 



15 






A Farm Home is easily beautified by trees and shrubs 

MANITOBA 

AVERAGE YIELDS — Wheat, 26.3 Bushels; Oats, 47.7 Bushels. 



A PROVINCE OF MUCH AGRICULTURAL STABILITY AND PROSPERITY 

THE total wheat production of Manitoba in 1915 was 97 million bushels, from 3,660,930 acres, or an average yield of 26.3 
bushels. The total yield of 1914 was 51,947,608 bushels. 
Wheat yields averaging 40 bushels per acre for whole districts were common. Yields of 30 and 35 bushels per acre 
for a district were reported from every section of the province. Individual yields of summer-fallow, potato land or breaking 
yielded 60 to 70 bushels per acre. 

Oats in several districts are said to have averaged 80 to 100 bushels per acre. The total oats crop for 1915 was 101 million 
bushels and the average per acre 47.7 bushels. 

The total barley crop was 35,281,095 bushels with an average yield of 34 bushels per acre. 



SOME OF THE INDIVIDUAL YIELDS 

Gladstone. — Wheat in this district averaged all the way from 25 to 50 
bushels an acre, some running over 50. One field of new land is reported tc 
have produced 70 bushels of wheat per acre and many entire quarter-sections 
averaged 40 bushels. Fields averaging 50 bushels were not exceptional. 

Fortler. — A farm here, which had been allowed to run down and get into 
an unprofitable condition, passed into the hands of a new owner who worked 
it on careful, scientific principles this year and had an average wheat crop on 
the entire farm of 56 bushels an acre — one small field averaged 72. 

Emerson. — Fifty-six and a half bushels to the acre was the average wheat 
crop realized from a field on a farm here. 

Winnipeg. — A field of Marquis wheat on the farm of the Manitoba Agri- 
cultural College gave a yield of 63 bushels per acre. 

Morris. — A 10-acre field of wheat at Morris, Manitoba, produced 630 
bushels, while an oat field at the same place yielded 123 bushels per acre. 

Brandon. — Numerous reports of 50 bushels of wheat per acre are to hand, 
and some even higher are heard of. 

Dauphin. — Four and one-fourth acres of wheat two miles from this town, 
yielded 326 bushels of wheat, an average of 76.7 bushels per acre. 

Manitou.— G. E. Davidson had 36 acres of breaking and 14 acres older 
land. He got 2,186 bushels of wheat, over 43 bushels per acre. 

Wm. Sharp, formerly Member of Parliament for Lisgar, Manitoba, had 80 
acres of wheat on his farm near Manitou, Manitoba, that went 53 bushels. 

One of the most remarkable yields in this old settled portion of Manitoba 
was that of P. Scharf of Manitou, who threshed from 15 acres the phenomenal 
yield of 73 bushels per acre. 

Darlingford.— Walter Tichnor had 3,514 bushels off a 60-acre field, or 
over 58 l A bushels per acre. Forty acres was breaking and 20 acres fallow. 

Bowsman. — G. Smith had 55 bushels per acre of oats from 109 acres. 

Beulah.— W. Saward, 38 bushels wheat from 167 acres and 70 bushels 
oats from an 80 acre field. 

Bridge Creek. — E. W. Nicholson got 40 bushels 
wheat per acre from 380 acres. 

Neepawa. — S. Benton. 30 acres average wheat from 
310 acres and his oats went 66 bushels per acre. 

Grandview. — J. Brothers' wheat went 35 bushels 
per acre from a 75-acre field. 



Brunkild. — J. Epler's wheat went 31 bushels per acre, his oats 50. W. 
Coersch had 16 bushels per acre from 80 acres wheat. W. Kabitenzig had 
35 bushels from 300 acres wheat; his oats went 45 bushels per acre. 

Dunrea. — K. Dunlop had 36 bushels wheat per acre from 135 acres, and 
40 bushels of oats as an average from 75 acres. 

Sperling. — J. Grundler's wheat went 52 bushels per acre from an 80 acre 
field, and his oats went 97 bushels per acre. J. L. Hamilton had 86 acres 
of wheat that yielded well, while his oats averaged 45 bushels. 

Shellmouth. — J. L. Bryant's 15 acres of wheat averaged 50 bushels. 
R. W. Patterson's average on 175 acres was 30 bushels; his oats went 52 bushels. 

Kennville.— W. Loat had 203 acres of wheat that averaged 43.50 bushels 
per acre. His oats went 65 bushels. 

Assissippi. — F. G. Richardson's average of wheat on 150 acres was 40 
bushels per acre. 

Gilbert Plains. — F. Morris had 232 acres of wheat, average 36 bushels; 
oats, 110 acres, average 50 bushels. J. Gordon's wheat averaged 40 bushels 
on 65 acres, and his oats 55 bushels on 90 acres. 

Gregg. — Foster Olmsted had 45 bushels of wheat per acre; G. A. Edwards, 
40 and A. McFarlane, 40. 

FROM ONE YEAR'S CROP HE PAID FOR HIS LAND IN 
WESTERN CANADA 

An Illinois farmer owned a large quantity of land near Culross, Manitoba. 
He decided to put one thousand acres of it under wheat. His own story 
written to Mr. C. J. Broughton, Canadian Government Agent at Chicago is 
interesting. 

"I had 1,000 acres in wheat near Culross, Manitoba. I threshed 34,000 
bushels, being an average of 34 bushels to the acre. Last spring I sold my 
foreman, Mr. F. L. Hill, 240 acres of land for $9,000 or $37.50 per acre. He 
had saved up about $1,000 which he could buy seed with, and have the land 
harrowed, drilled and harvested, and put in stock or shock. 

"As a first payment I was to take all the crops raised. When he threshed he 
had 8,300 bushels of wheat, which is worth in all $1.00 per bushel, thereby paying 
for all the land that was in wheat and more too, there being 
only 200 acres in crop. If the 240 acres had all been in 
wheat he could have paid for it all and had money left." 

That is a story that will need no corroboration in 
this year when no matter which way you turn, you learn 
of farmers who had even higher yields than these. 




An Eastern Capitalist looking over his investments in Western Canada. He has here a field of wheat of 40oacres that gave him a yield of upwards 

of 6o bushels per acre in 1915. 



16 



CANADA. WEST 



MANITOBA ENJOYS PROSPERITY BROUGHT ABOUT BY RICHNESS OF ITS SOIL 



GRAIN* growing is and will probably remain 
the most important feature in this prov- 
ince and more especially in the Red River 
valley proper. However, recent years have wit* 
nessod a change. More and more stock is being 
kept and the tendency is, undoubtedly, largely 
towards smaller holdings, that is, diversified farm- 
ing. Dairying and the production of beef, mutton 
and pork are already prosecuted with profit in 
many sections. Grass, roots and all classes of 
forage crops can be grown successfully. Of the 
cereals w heat is the staple, but oats, barley and 
Max are also largely grown. 

Climate. — Manitoba's climatic conditions are 
uniform throughout. There is much sunshine the 
year round. The summer is pleasant, warm, and 
conducive to rapid and successful growth. The 
long autumns are usually agreeable, ploughing 
weather sometimes extending to the end of 
November. 

The winters rarely last more than three or four 
months, and because of the dry atmosphere, the 
low temperature is not as much felt as in countries 
with more moisture. The precipitation at 

Minnedosa is 17.62 while that at Winnipeg it is 21.88. This may be 
said to be normal. . 

The crop season in Manitoba extends from April to October, inclusive. 
Seeding frequently starts early in April, and threshing usually lasts through 
October. The mean temperature for the period, April 1 to September 30, in 
1914 was 55 degrees Fahrenheit. The mean temperature in October was only 
34.40 Fahrenheit, but threshing can be done in cold weather as readily as in 
warm, with no injurious effects. The total precipitation in the province was 
smaller than usual — for the growing season 9.67 inches, but rain was well dis- 
tributed: May 1.04 inches; June 2.34 inches; July 1.70 inches; August 3.56 
inches, and September .68 inch. The average sunshine was 7.3 hours daily. 
The mean temperature of the country is 32.7; January 5.2; July 66.1. 

Available Homesteads.— There are about two million acres open for free 
homesteading in the old portion of the province, where there is ample tree 
growth to provide fuel and timber for a long time to come. 

With conditions such as these, and with a grain crop that has brought to 
every man, woman and child in the province upwards of 350 dollars, with land 
that can be purchased from large land companies and from the railway com- 
panies at remarkably low figures, some of them improved and others raw 
prairie, any of them easily worth double, what more reasonable or pleasurable 
existence could be imagined than life on one of these Manitoba farms. 

And then, if you wish you may take advantage of the homesteading act 
which gives you the privilege of taking up 160 acres of land as a free gift from the 
Government, the only payment being the ten dollars entry fee. 

Fuel. — There is an ample supply of wood along most of the rivers and in the 
hills to the north, the wooded area to the east and also in the hills throughout 
Southern Manitoba. Coal is not expensive. Many farm homes that a few 
years ago were surrounded by but the open prairie have become beautified by 
the planting of rows of trees and shrubs. Supplies of trees may be had from 
the Government without any expense to the applicant. 

Investment in Manitoba Farms. — Some idea of the growth of the 
province may be obtained from the fact that the farms of Manitoba are worth 
today approximately, $600,000,000. In 1911 they were worth $463,000,000. 
Of the present six hundred millions the value of the farm lands now occupied 
in the province is estimated at $425,000,000, 
w hich is an increase of about $125,000,000 over 
1911. The farm buildings in the province total 
a value of $100,000,000, w hile agricultural imple- 
ments in use in the province total a value of 
about $35,000,000. The value of live stock is 
placed at about $75,000,000. 

Land Area in Manitoba.— The land area of 
Manitoba Is about 250,000 square miles, which is 
enough to give a square mile of land to 250,000 
settlers, or sufficient to give a quarter-section to 
three times that number. Government estimates 
place the arable land still available in Manitoba 
at 74,216,000 acres, which is sufficient to give 
quarter-sections to 463,825 new settlers. 

With land still available In 100-acre parcels for 
over 463,000 agricultural settlers, It is possible 
to Increase the total population of the province by 
nearly two million people without crowding and to 
Increase the agricultural production of the province 
several hundred per cent. 

Koot and Fodder Crops are of considerable value 
to the Manitoba farmers. They grow in splendid 
abundance. Every farmer can have a good supply 
for winter's feed. 




This picture was specially posed to show the height 
of the oats. It is needless to say that the 
yield in this field was exceedingly large. 



recovery in many cases. 




Harvest labour becomes a pleasure when the 
yield is a 40 bushel to the acre wheat crop. 



Pasture Grasses. — The wild or native grass of 
Manitoba contains all the properties for fattening 
cattle, but it is found that on lands that are 
becoming more expensive all the time, it is best to 
provide cultivated fodders. The experimental 
stage is passed, and it can safely be said that all 
kinds of tame grasses can be grown successfully. 

Alfalfa yields abundantly. The same methods 
of seeding and preparation are followed as in the 
older alfalfa districts of the south. While the same 
number of cuttings cannot always be relied upon, 
as in some of the southern countries, where irriga- 
tion is used, an excellent tonnage is always secured. 
* Corn Can Be Grown. — Manitoba is now pro- 
ducing considerable corn, chiefly for feeding 
purposes. In some cases where the crop can be 
matured into the dough stage, silos could be used, 
and would be a profitable investment. 

A report of the Department of Agriculture for 
1915 says: 

" It is unfortunate that the corn crop this year 
must be reported a partial failure. The late spring 
frost in June and the early fall frost in August were 
sufficiently severe to cut back the crop beyond 
The seriousness of this situation can be appreciated 
when it is noted that the area planted to corn had increased from 30,430 acres 
in 1914 to 52,713 acres in 1915. While the condition this year cannot fail 
to create a disappointment among some farmers regarding corn, this crop is 
so firmly established in many of the older districts that it will continue 
to increase in popularity." 
In connection with fodder crops comes in the question of: 
Dairying. — It was not until the past few years that the attention was given 
to this that the success to which it has now attained warranted it should have 
had. The time of the farmer was entirely given to grain raising, and no 
matter how rich a soil may be, a constant drainage of the constituents must 
sooner or later tell. The farmers of Manitoba today do not dwell upon the 
results of their grain crops. They have gone into cattle raising very extensively, 
and there are to be found some of the best herds of the important breeds on the 
continent. These are both beef and dairy. There are creameries established 
in different parts of the province. 

Manitoba produced during 1915 about 10,000,000 pounds of butter, which 
had a value of $2,648,000. 

The cheese production in this province for 1915 totalled about 726,725 
pounds, valued at about $109,000. This shows an increase of about 234,000 
pounds over 1910, the cheese production of that year being valued at $33,364. 

The total cheese, butter and milk and cream production of the province 
was worth $3,845,000. 

Hogs. — The cost of raising pork in Manitoba is probably less than in any 
other portion of the continent. There is a splendid market for all that can be 
produced. The principal feed for finishing is barley, which by many is con- 
sidered to be equally as good as corn. 

Cattle. — The demand for cattle for years will be great, and there is no 
better place to go into the business of raising cattle than in the Province of 
Manitoba. They require no more care on the reasonably-priced lands of this 
country than they do on the higher-priced lands of the south. They graze 
out from the 1st of April until the middle of November, and during the winter 
months are housed at night only. All breeds do well, and a choice is 
only according to the notion of the breeder's 
fancy. 

Poultry. — One of the largest poultry yards in 
the Dominion, in fact the largest north of Chicago, 
is near Winnipeg. It has been a paying proposition 
from the start. Every farmer keeps his flocks of 
turkeys, geese and chickens; or, should we have 
said nearly every farmer's wife, for it seems to 
have fallen to the lot of the farmer's wife, for here, 
as in almost every farming district, it seems to 
have fallen to her lot to look after this very 
profitable part of the farmers' industries. It gives 
her pleasure and affords her profit. 

Fruit. — All the smaller fruits, such as straw- 
berries, raspberries, gooseberries, and currants can 
be grown successfully, and with a better flavour 
and in larger quantities than in most other 
places. They also grow wild in great abundance. 
Crabapples can be grown almost anywhere. The 
larger varieties of apples are grown, and excellent 
yields are reported from points in Southern 
Maiutoba. Commercially, it is not thought it 
will pay as they require time and attention 
that would be more profitably employed in 
other pursuits. 



CANADA WEST 



17 




MANITOBA'S SOCIAL CONDITIONS MAKE FARM 
LIFE ENJOYABLE 



The Social Conditions. The representative of the Dominion Govern- 
ment, whose work is to seek settlers for these newer portions of the great 
Dominion, is never so pleased as when he meets a prospective settler who asks 
about the social conditions. That means he is talking to a prospect who has 
wife and family and whose interest in life is beyond that of a mere existence. 
Manitoba to this man can offer all that he may require. There are schools 
for the children, graduated into those for 
higher education for maturer years, until 
it comes to the very highest branches of 
education. A large portion of the expense 
of these schools is paid out of a public 
fund, established from the interest of the 
money received from the sale of school 
lands. These school lands comprise one- 
eighteenth of all the land In the country. 

Ladies' colleges for the finishing educa- 
tion of the daughters are provided. There 
are churches of all denominations. 

Both Dominion and Provincial Govern- 
ments have made ample provision for the 
education of the farmer, in the establish- 
ment of an experimental farm at Brandon 
and the splendid Agricultural College at 
Winnipeg. The best talent available is 
employed, and the opportunities afforded 
of obtaining a more thorough education in 
agronomy are amongst the best possible. 

In the matter of educational facilities the 
new settler need have no fear that in Mani- 
toba his children will be deprived of educa- 
tional advantages; on the contrary, he will 
find the schools of Manitoba thoroughly 
up-to-date in equipment, the teachers com- 
petent and the courses carefully selected 
and supervised. 



GREAT OPPORTUNITIES FOR 
YOUNG MEN 

Western Canada requires a large number of 
young men for employment on farms, and no 
able-bodied young man, understanding ordinary 
farm work, need hunt for a position, as steady 
work may be easily obtained at $30 to $35 
per month, with board and lodging, during the 
spring, summer and fall seasons. This is an 
opportunity to earn money while looking around 
for a free homestead of 160 acres, which you 
can secure upon the payment of a ten dollar 
entry fee, and at the same time become 
acquainted with farming conditions as they are 
in Western Canada, and ultimately have a home 
of your own surrounded by all agricultural and 
social advantages. 



The extent to which agri- 
cultural instruction alongali 
lines has been developed un- 
der the direct supervision of 
the Government is one of 
the agreeable surprises that 
await the newcomer. The 
Government is constantly 
on the alert to help the 
farmer in practical ways 
that mean dollars to him. 

In many parts of the 
province there is rural mail 
delivery which, added to 



Results Calculated to Water-Free Basis 



the telephone system, places the farmer day by day and hour by hour in the 
closest touch with his neighbour and the outside markets of the world. 

Graded roads are to be found in all parts where the native or prairie road 
fails to give satisfaction. Streams are often bridged with steel structures. 
Markets are convenient and there is probably no state in the Union where the 
farmer is so well served by the railways. Very few farmers, as one may 

see by a glance at the map, are more than 
ten to fifteen miles from a railway. 

Elevators are at every station, and in 
addition there are loading platforms, which 
may be used by the farmer w ho wishes to 
load his grain direct to the car, and avoid 
the elevator charges. 

With the exceptionally good roads, be- 
fore spoken of, the farmer w ho wishes to 
use an automobile, w ill find this one of the 
added pleasures to his farm life in Mani- 
toba. The sales made in the province dur- 
ing 1915 were exceptionally large, and the 
greatest number was made to farmers. 

The Soil. — Speaking of the soil of Mani- 
toba, Dr. Geo. M. Dawson, the eminent 
geologist wrote some years ago: 

"Of the alluvial prairie, the uniform fer- 
tility of its soil cannot be exaggerated. 
The surface, for a depth of two to four 
feet, is a dark mould, composed of the same 
material as the subsoil, but mingled with 
much vegetable matter. Its dark colour is 
no doubt due in part to the general accumu- 
lation of the charred grasses left by the 
prairie fires. The soil may be said to be 
ready for the plough, and, in turning the 
tough, thick prairie sod, the first year 
a crop of potatoes may be put in, though 
it is not sufficiently broken 



Locality 



Morris, Man 

Portage la Prairie 
j Portage la Prairie 

[Brandon 

Brandon 

I Dauphin, Man . 
jValley River, Man 
; Valley River, Man 



Character of 
Soil 



Virgin prairie soil— black, heavy clay loam 
Virgin prairie soil — black, sandy loam . . 

Prairie soil, cropped 25 years 

Prairie soil, black loam, rather sandy 
Prairie soil, black loam, rather sandy 

Black sandy loam 

Black sandy loam 

Black sandy loam 



3 



% 
26 29 
19.43 
14 79 
11.27 

12 05 
11.44 
21.54 

13 11 



% 
1.005 
.651 
.506 
.346 
.431 
.363 
.662 
.379 



% 
1 033 
.658 
.588 
.819 
.841 
.687 
.144 
1!<4 



% 

1.8 
1.05 
1 61 
1.14 
1.02 
1.89 
10 57 
3 54 



Available 
Constitu- 
ents 



% 
.054 
.038 
.033 
.029 
J 7 
.023 
.007 
.007 



% 

076 
.056 
.048 
.057 
.076 

01- 

01 

007 



.5-1 
.529 
.776 
.572 
.462 
1.121 
1.346 
949 



up till it has been subjected 
to a winter's frost. When 
the sod has rotted, the soil 
appears as a light, friable 
mould, easily worked and 
most favourable for agricul- 
ture. The marly alluvium 
underlying the vegetable 
mould would, in most coun- 
tries, be considered a soil 
of the best quality, and the 
fertility of the ground may, 
therefore, be considered as 
practically inexhaustible." 




22 



CANADA WEST 




CANADA'S GREATEST GRAIN GROWING PROVINCE 

A GRATIFYING feature of Saskatchewan's farm crop of 1915 was the general average yield of wheat over the whole Province, 
excepting probably the district north of Moose Jaw to the Saskatchewan River, where yields of upwards of sixty bushels 
per acre are reported. There was a universally heavy yield of oats in all districts, some going over 100 bushels to the 
acre, while that of barley was equally good. The prices were such that many fanners realized sufficient to pay for their farms out 
of the acre crop, and felt justified in purchasing land for further operations. 

WHEAT.— Acreage, 6,884,874 acres; average yield, 25.2 bushels; total yield, 173,723,775 bushels. 
OATS.— Acreage, 2,846,949 acres; average yield, 45.9 bushels; total yield, 130,910,048 bushels. 
BARLEY.— Acreage, 272,299 acres; average yield, 33.2 bushels; total yield, 9,043,813 bushels. 
FLAX.— Acreage, 539,674 acres; average yield, 11.2 bushels; total yield, 6,060,499 bushels. 



Moose Jaw.— A farmer of this district, who had already harvested 25,000 
bushels, completed early in November the threshing of 320 acres of wheat 
which gave an average of 54 bushels per acre. 

lyorkwood. — Mr. \V. D. Scott, Superintendent of Immigration, on his 
farm near this place, had a yield of 45 bushels per acre, on a 23-acre field. 
His entire crop of over 200 acres gave a yield of 35 bushels per acre. Yield of 
oats was 58 bushels per acre. 

Scott. — Reports from Scott Experimental station are that best crops in that 
district yielded from 45 to 50 bushels of wheat per acre, with few fields yielding 
below 30 bushels. Oats yielded well, but barley gave only medium returns. 
At the Station, one field of wheat yielded over 52 bushels 
per acre, while other fields averaged well. 

Swirt Current.— From estimates made by farmers 
the average wheat crop of the Swift Current district will 
range from 25 to 30 bushels per acre. Some localities 
claim averages of 35 bushels and higher. 

Kindersley. — Ten acres of wheat land carefully meas- 



ured out on an 10,000 acre farm here yielded 54.10 bushels or a fraction over 

54 bushels to the acre. 

Saskatoon. — The yields produced this year on the University Farm at 
Saskatoon, while not phenomenal, are a very good index of what can be accom- 
plished by proper farming methods without any exceptionally favorable con- 
ditions. Wheat on the farm has yielded this year 47 bushels per acre on land 
which was sown to corn last season. The lowest wheat yield recorded on 
breaking is 23 bushels, and the highest 37 bushels per acre; the lowest wheat 
yield on land that was "stubbled-in" is 17 bushels, and the highest 46 bushels 
per acre; the lowest yield of oats on summer fallow is 77 bushels, and the 
highest 94 bushels per acre; the lowest yield of barley 
on summer fallow is 38 bushels, and the highest 51 
bushels, while the lowest yield of peas on summer 
fallow is 40 bushels. 

The Dominion Lands agent at this place says that 
from 107 different threshing outfits which form as 
many different points in the province the yield of 
wheat was 53 bushels per acre. 





Water, grass and some shelter are requisite on a farm where cattle-raising is carried on, and there is plenty in Western Canada 



CANADA WEST 



2 3 



SOME OF WESTERN CANADA'S FARM HOMES 




Marklnrh. — The crops in this district have been completely threshed and 
about 70 percent have been marketed, including as a total 390,000 bushels, 
leaving about 200,000 remaining in the granaries. 

Two hundred and ten cars of wheat, one car of barley, three of oats and 
two of flax is the total number of cars shipped from here since September 1. 

Shaunavon. — No w heatfield of this district has been recorded as averaging 
less than 35 bushels to the acre while the majority run 40 to 47 and a very 
large percentage of the crop grades N'o. 1 Northern. One farmer had an 
average of 47 bushels of wheat from 204 acres and another secured an average 
of 45 bushels from a field which has been "stubbled-in". 

Morse. — Thirty-one bushels per acre from 70 acres sown on stubble and 
56 bushels per acre from whole quarter-section on summer fallow are among 
the yields recorded in this district. 

Sovereign. — The certified yield on the farm of D. E. Johnston, after careful 
measurement shows wheat returns — 51 acres summer fallow, 58 bushels per 
acre; 78 acres summer fallow, 63 bushels per acre; 34 acres summer fallow, 
70 bushels per acre: 95 acres seeded on flax stubble, 55 bushels per acre; 128 
acres on wheat stubble, 48 bushels per acre; 130 acres on fall ploughing, 40 
bushels per acre; and 71 acres in flax yielded 30 bushels per acre. 

Humboldt. — Threshing is revealing good yields throughout Humboldt 
district. A field of 100 acres Marquis wheat yielded 4,000 bushels and graded 
No. 1 Northern. 

Kennedy. — Wheat in this district has averaged 32 bushels per acre and the 
grade was high. 

Alsask. — Wheat, fine sample, yielding all the way from 25 to 60 bushels 
per acre. 

Melfort. — Wheat averaged 30 bushels to the acre, and showed a high 
quality. 

Lloydminster. — Wheat in some places went 45 bushels, and oats 75 
bushels to the acre. The average for wheat will be about 25 bushels to the acre. 

Elrose. — A half-section of wheat threshed here showed a total yield of 
16.640 bushels, which is an average of 52 bushels per acre. 

Indian Head. — The average per acre of wheat in summer fallow in this 
district was 30 bushels and for stubble 18 bushels of wheat per acre. 

Eskbank.— W. P. McLachlan had 40 bushels of wheat. 

Darmody. — John Ask had 42 bushels of wheat. 

Gilroy. — Chas. Lundy had 40 bushels of wheat. 

Nokomis. — J. R. Durgan harvested 51 bushels of wheat, A. G. McFarlane 
had 48. W. J. Casterton had 47 bushels of wheat. 

Bremen. — G. Hoffman had 62 bushels of wheat and 114 bushels of oats. 

Domremy. — J. Georges had 62 bushels of wheat. 

Asqulth. — T. Peat had 41 bushels of wheat. 

Pope. — Wm. Kerr had 62 bushels of wheat, S. Laird had 55. 

Semans. — H. W. A. Johnston had 41 \'i bushels of wheat per acre, T. 
Hawley had 47 bushels of wheat, J. G. McGouch had 49J-4 bushels of wheat. 



Toung. — W. C. Teneycke had 50 bushels of wheat per acre, W. Mason 
and R. Cross each had 45 bushels per acre. 

Gerald. — J. L. Salkeld had 52 bushels of wheat per acre, Chas. Jackson 
had 48, and W. H. Tebb had 40. 

Zelma. — John McPherson had 44 bushels of wheat, Jas. Byers had 41. 
and V. P. Byan had 85 bushels of oats per acre. 

Unity. — C. W. Benjamin had 50 bushels of wheat and 85 bushels of oats 
per acre. George Sim had 52 bushels of wheat, C. E. Michael and W. J. Gra- 
ham each had 100 bushels of oats. A. G. Young had 50 bushels of wheat and 
100 bushels of oats. 

Leney. — Robert Carr had 57 bushels of wheat, Frank Brown had 53, 
R. H. Weir had 48. 

Venn. — T. E. Evjen had 44H bushels of wheat, Tingey Bros, had 45 
bushels of wheat. 

An hydale. — A. Dalrymple and J. Morrison each had 40 bushels of wheat. 

Roletta. — P. G. Alger had 49 bushels of wheat and 100 bushels of oats, 
I. Wilson had 49 bushels of w heat and 100 bushels of oats. 

Battleford. — A. E. Flack from 40 acres harvested 52 bushels of wheat 
per acre, M. Thebault had 45 bushels per acre. 



Name 



Bresnahar, J. S._. 
Shortreed, F. R... 

Hopper, P 

Firnquist, J. P.-.. 

Lipsit, E. A 

Neigel, J 

Begley, Jas 

Anderson, A 

Macey, H 

Moore, J. C 

Strutt, J. J 

Carruthers, J. G.. 



District 


Grain 


Acre- 
age 


Average 
Yield 


Total 
Yield 


Tompkins 




Wheat. 


37 


48 


bu. 


1.776 bu. 


Sceptre 


Wheat . 


72 


60 


bu. 


4,320 bu. 


Abbey 


Wheat . 


80 


61 


bu. 


4,860 bu. 


Stone. 


Oats... 


7 


116 


bu. 


812 bu. 


Lancer . 


Wheat . 


10 


57 


bu. 


570 bu. 


Prussia 


Wheat _ 


420 


47.6 


bu. 


19.992 bu. 


Lemsford 


Wheat. 


80 


54 


bu. 


4,382 bu. 


Burgogne 


Wheat. 


60 


43 


bu. 


2,380 bu. 


Rosetown 


Wheat . 


110 


52 


bu. 


5,720 bu. 


Fiske . 


Wheat - 


97 


50.05 bu. 


4,855 bu. 


Flaxcombe... 


Oats... 


10 


100 


bu. 


1,000 bu. 


Rosetown 


Oats-.. 


15.5 


116 


bu. 


1,800 bu. 



Then too. we have Seager Wheeler at Rosthern who, apart from once more 
carrying off the World's Championship at Denver for wheat, was able to grow 
eighty bushels to the acre of Kitchener wheat and forty-six bushels per acre of 
Marquis in spite of the fact that the yield was reduced by June frosts, and 
that that district this year only had some three inches of rainfall. 

The quality of the grain crop of Saskatchewan is almost as satisfactory as 
the yield, as the percentage grading No. 1 Northern is high. 

On the whole the year has had very satisfactory results for agriculturists. 

Potatoes show an average yield per acre of 140 bushels with a total acreage 
of 30,796. Other field roots with a total of 9,680 acres give 212 bushels as an 
average yield per acre. 




24 



CANADA WEST 



MIXED FARMING SUCCESSFUL 




All Lines of Farming 
Pay Equally as Well 
as Wheat Growing 





A very good prairie view taken 
in Western Canada 



LIVE STOCK. — With the 
exception of hogs, there 
j is an increase in live 
stock returns. It would 
not have been a matter for sur- 
prise if live stock had remained 
practically stationary during 
1915 owing to the extra atten- 
tion paid to grain, but it is sat- 
isfactory to note that there is 
an increase, even if it is not 
large. In some districts there 
is an increase of 7 per cent in 
milch cows, and a total increase 
for the province of 6 per cent 
over last year. Hogs show a 
decrease, but hogs so easily rise 

or fall in numbers that they reflect the state of the market much more 
quickly than any other branch of the live stock industry. Horses have held 
their own in numbers, although the market has not been encouraging. A good 
omen is the increase in the number of sheep. Sheep will play an important 
part in checking weeds, and we need their aid. Below is given a comparative 
table showing the totals of live stock for the years 1914 and 1915. 



There is nothing very extraordinary about this scene. It is a usual one on farms in 
Western Canada. Farmers are making use of the money cleared from their great 
fields of grain in 1913 to purchase cattle and go more into mixed farming. 



Year 


Horses 


Milch 

Cows 


Other 
Cattle 


Sheep 


Swine 


1914 
1915 


640,035 
667,443 


338,994 
358,540 


541,504 
573,021 


177,752 
192,024 


477,360 
329,246 



Dairying. — There is a competent dairy branch connected with the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. With the establishment and maintenance of creameries 
throughout the province, there is an increasing interest in this industry, with 
commensurate profits to the farmer. The climate favours winter dairying. 
The many native fodder plants help materially, and alfalfa can be so easily 
grown that it Is promoting a rapid increase in the production, which will 
shortly do away with the imported article, which up to the past few years has 
been very large. The increase in the number of creameries is not the means 
by which success is measured, but rather the volume of business done, not 
only in the individual creamery but the total volume for the province. 

Co-operative creameries under Government supervision, in five summer 
months of 1915, produced 1,640,000 lbs. butter, which is an increase of 
over 50 per cent on same period of 1914 and more than double that of same 
period of 1913. The Dairy Commission, in reporting on this great increase, 
says that, although the industry is developing rapidly, its possibilities are 
practically unlimited and a market for five times the butter now being produced 
can be found readily. The price of creamery butter has been advancing 
steadily for several years and is now so high as to stimulate western farmers 
to greater production. Saskatchewan farmers are urged to use the surplus 
from this year's crops to increase their dairy herds and facilities. 

Sheep. — The farmers In Saskatchewan are now going extensively into 
sheep raising and the Provinicial Government is assisting them to secure 
the best price for fleeces, by handling the wool and selling it en-bloc in the 
best competitive market. In 1915 the market price was 25 to 27 cents a 
pound. 

Poultry .—The Provincial Government in order to encourage the raising of 
poultry Is handling, for the farmers, the birds in the fall. A special instruction 
train goes through the country and demonstrates the correct method of kill- 
ing and dressing, collects the birds for sale and disposes of them in the best 
market, usually obtaining a few cents more a pound for the farmer than if 
sold in the nearest local market. 



Sheep raising one of the profit- 
able branches of farming 



FODDER CROPS 

Prairie Grasses. — Generally 
areof two classes, viz.: "Prairie 
wool" and "slough" or "mead- 
ow" hay. 

Domestic Hay. — Timothy 
occupies the greatest acreage. 
Rye and brome grasses are 
sown to a lesser extent. Clover, 
alsike, alfalfa and corn are re- 
ported in limited areas. 

Corn and Alfalfa.— A sam- 
ple of Northwestern Dent corn 
8 feet 10 inches high from a 
300-acre irrigated field on a 
farm near Prussia, Saskatch- 
ewan, is splendid evidence of the suitability of the climate and soil to corn 
raising when water at the proper time is assured through irrigation. The 
same farm has 1,000 acres of alfalfa. Between 30 and 40 varieties of corn 
recently harvested on the University farm at Saskatoon averaged 8 to 13 
tons per acre. 



Western Canada requires for this season's farming operations 
30,000 additional labourers. Wages S30 to $40 per month with board 
and lodging. This presents an excellent opportunity for every 
ambitious young man to get a start, eventually owning a farm of 
his own, and be independent for life. Secure information from 
the nearest Canadian Government agent as to what district you 
should go to and learn of the low railway rates available. 



Roots and Vegetables. — Potatoes easily occupy the most important place 
among the root crops, representing at least 70 per cent of the total acreage 
Turnips and mangels are grown to some extent for feed. Sugar beets have 
proved very successful in some parts of the province. Practically all the 
smaller garden vegetables are grown, and excellent results are obtained. 

Tree Planting. — To meet the lack of natural protection against wind and 
snow, the Dominion Government, since 1901, has distributed trees for 
planting in the Prairie Provinces. In many cases a large advance in farm 
values has resulted. These trees are raised at the Forestry Nursery Stations 
at Indian, Head and Saskatoon, in Saskatchewan, and are distributed to 
applicants under defined conditions with regard to cultivation. 

Fruit Growing. — The smaller bush fruits grow in profusion all through 
the province, and an excellent quality is obtained. Larger fruits are in the 
experimental stage as yet. A good variety of early apples has been produced 
on the Experimental Farm at Indian Head. The market for larger fruits is 
still supplied by the Ontario and British Columbia fruit lands. 

Fuel and Water. — The brown coal deposits in southern Saskatchewan are 
the sole sources of fuel in the vast territory between the head of the great lakes 
and the Rocky Mountains. In character they are true lignite of cretaceous 
age. The woody structure is very marked. As to quantity, there are not 
millions but billions of tons east and west of the Souris River. Lignites occur 
abundantly in the Estevan and the Souris River field. Operations are carried 
on by several mining companies. A large field is being opened up by 
branches of C.N.R. and C.P.R. near Wood mountain in the south, and 
promising reports of discoveries come from west of Saskatoon. A colliery is 
operated 40 miles south of Moose Jaw. 

Water is plentiful everywhere and in most districts it is only necessary to 
sink a shallow well to get a plentiful supply. 



CANADA WEST 



25 



SASKATCHEWAN'S SOIL AND CLIMATE THE SECRET OF ITS BIG YIELDS 



An Authenticated Yield.— It is not always possible to get authenticated 
statements of tjrain yields, as in many eases there are no faeilities for making 
an accurate measurement of land and products. Below are figures from a farm 
at Sovereign, Saskatchewan, where land and yields were carefully measured, 
and exact results can be quoted. They speak for themselves: 

Bushels 
per acre. 



51 acres w heat on summer fallow - 57 43 

78i 2 acres wheat on summer fallow 62 48 

34 acres wheat on summer fallow _ 69 87 

951 s acres w heat seeded on Max stubble 53 83 

128 acres seeded on wheat stubble — 48 09 

130 acres seeded on fall plowing and w heat stubble -- 40 04 

71 acres flax — - - 30 08 

25 acres barley -- - -■- 69 

51acresoats -- -- --- 80 



All wheat was the Marquis variety. Average yield of wheat on summer 
fallow, 62 . 45 bushels per acre. Total crop over 34,000 bushels. 

His Story In a Nutshell.— 

"You ask me how I started farming in Saskatchewan; here Is the story in a 
nutshell: 

••I left the United States with my wife and three boysin March, 1907, having 
S2.000 cash, 10 horses, 3 cows and 3 cars of settler's effects. 

' We homesteaded 640 acres of land 150 miles southwest of Saskatoon, 
about 12 miles from the present Biggar-Calgary line of the G. T. P. railroad. 

"Boys and self now have 1,600 acres of land; 524 acres in crop and enough 
prepared land now to make over 1.000 acres of crop in spring of 1915. 

"I had an offer of $35.00 an acre as it stood, but refused, being confident 
that this land "will be worth $50.00 per acre in two years. 

"We have a full set of machinery, binders, drills. 45-horsepower engine plow s 
and separators. Summer fallow looks like 40 to 45 bushel crop, and never 
better prospects for flax. 

"It is a splendid country for the rich and poor to get richer. Yours truly, 
Chas. F. Taylor & Sons, Springwater, Sask." 

Cost of Improving Land. — The following is an estimate of the 
cost of farm development, where it is done by contract work. Breaking, 
3 inches deep, per acre, $3 to $5; harrowing, each operation, per acre, 35c; 
discing 3 times, per acre, $1.50; seeding, not including seed, per acre, 60c. ; 
seed, per bushel, market price; fencing per mile, 3 wires, $100 to $125; hauling 
grain from nearest station to land, per mile, per bus., %f.\ treating grain with 
bluestone or formalin, per bus., 3c. ; boring wells, using steel casings, per ft., 
$2.25 to $6; boring wells, using galvanized casings, per ft., $2 to $2.75; cost 
of good work horse, $150 to $200; cost of milch cow, $65; cost of sow for 
breeding, $10. Coal varies with locality from 50c. per ton at mine, to $6 per 
ton delivered at shipping point. A 6-roomed house, $700; a stable to accom- 
modate 8 horses, $300; implement shed, $100; granary for 2,000 bus., $100. 

Profit Per 100 Acres by Contract Work. — The following estimate is 
regarded as fair by practical men. It shows the cost and profit per acre on 
acropof wheat of 100 acres: Preparing the land or seeding, $4.00; drilling, 
20c.; harvesting and stocking, 90c; threshing and delivering crop of 22.50 
bushels per acre, (the average yield) at 12c per bushel, $2.70 per acre entire 
cost of wheat crop per acre delivered to the elevator, $7.80; add interest, 8 
percent on land, at $20 per acre, $1.60; taxes (land, school and road) per 
acre, about 20c. ; total cost per acre, $9.60; receipts from sale of 22.50 bushels 
of wneat at 95c. per bushel, $21.37. Net profit per acre, $11.77. Profit on 
100 acres, $1,177.00, a deduction must be made to allow for cost of seed 
which varies according to variety. 

Buying on Half-Crop Payments. — A farm is sometimes acquired at an 
agreed price on the following terms: The purchaser does all the work on the 
land, supplying seed, paying for twine and threshing, delivers one-half the 
crop to the elevator for the owner, who credits the amount received on 
the purchase price of the land. 

Education. — Schools are sustained by provincial aid and local rates. 
Except in special cases where qualified teachers cannot be obtained, the teacher 
must hold a certificate of qualification granted by the Department of Educa- 
tion. The university, located at Saskatoon, is supported and controlled by 
the province, a department of which is a college of agriculture with some 
of Canada's best educators and agricultural specialists on the faculty. No- 
where do the agricultural authorities give greater attention to welfare and 
education of the farmer than in the newer districts of this province. The 
number of schools in 1903 was 606; in 1913 there were 3,226, or only 500 
schools short of one new school for every day of the w hole ten years, excluding 
Sundays. In addition to the university there are seventeen high schools. 

Land Value Taxation. — Saskatchewan's taxation assessments trend 
towards the straight land tax. The municipal law does not lend itself to the 
penalising of a man's thrift by making him pay taxes on his personal property 
his herds, his barns or his house. The land alone is assessed at its value, w ith- 
out regard of its improvement. The credit of the municipality is the security 
on the land itself. 



The laws are such that no one need lose his land for non-payment of taxes 
until full and ample notice has been given and a generous period of time allowed 
to redeem. There is no War Ta\ on Land. 

CENTRAL SASKATCHEWAN 

The Available Homesteads are principally in the northern portion of 
central Saskatchew an which is watered east and west by the main Saskatchew an 
river and by its chief branch, the North Saskatchewan. The surface generally 
is rolling prairie interspersed with wooded bluffs of poplar, spruce and pine, 
alternating with intruding portions of the great plain from the south. In 
soil and climate central Saskatchewan is well adapted to the raising of cattle, 
also wheat and other grains. North of tow nship 30 there is unlimited grazing 
land, horses, cattle and sheep feeding in the open most of the year. There 
is the necessary shelter when extreme cold weather sets in, and water is plentiful. 
Sheep do well. Many farmers have from 50 to 100 sheep and lambs. The 
district also possesses everything required for the growing of crops and there 
are satisfactory yields of all the smaller grains. The homesteader may add to 
his holdings by purchasing adjoining land from the Canadian Pacific Railway, 
Canadian Northern and other corporations. These unimproved lands range 
from $15 an acre upwards. 

SOUTHERN SASKATCHEWAN 

Available Farm Land. — There are but few homesteads available in south- 
eastern Saskatchewan. The land is occupied by an excellent class of farmers, 
and values range from $15 per acre to $25 for unimproved prairie, and from 
$30 to $50 per acre for improved farms. In the neighbourhood of Moose Jaw 
mixed farming and grain raising are carried on with success. North and 
northwest, towards the Saskatchewan, are large settlements; but to the south 
and southwest is a tract of land available for homesteading. 

Southeastern Saskatchewan includes that section between Manitoba on the 
east and the third meridian on the west, extending some distance north of 
the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It has more rainfall than 
portions farther west and less wood than the portion lying north. In character 
and productiveness of soil, southeastern Saskatchewan is a continuation of 
Manitoba, but contains more prairie area. 

NORTHERN SASKATCHEWAN 
Available Homesteads. — Northern Saskatchewan has not yet been opened 
to any extent for settlement. There are approximately 80 million acres 
beyond the railway at Prince Albert which time, zeal, and railway enterprise 
will eventually make accessible. Furs, forest wealth, and fisheries are rec- 
ognized as a national asset, but thousands of acres of fertile land lie beyond 
the existing lines of railway — awaiting development. Northern Saskatchewan 
has natural resources sufficient to maintain a population equal to that of any- 
European country in corresponding latitude. 

SASKATCHEWAN SOILS 

In reviewing the soils of Saskatchewan examined during a period of twenty 
years, taking those representing large areas and selected from districts at 
considerable distance apart, covering nearly the entire province, Prof. 
Shutt, Dominion Chemist says: "It is worthy of remark that the larger 
number of the soils examined, and more particularly those in the noted wheat 
growing districts, have been found to be abundantly supplied with humus- 
forming material and nitrogen. They possess abundant stores of plant food, 
and are of high fertility." 

In some parts, especially in the districts that are partly wooded with scrub 
poplar, etc., the soil is a grayish black loam of a decidedly clayey nature. 
The nitrogen in the water free soil is almost half of one per cent with notable 
amounts of potash and lime, and an average phosphoric acid content. 

In other parts the description of soils by the same authority, gives them as 
black, sandy loams of the true prairie type, rich in vegetable matter and 
nitrogen, with excellent percentages of phosphoric acid and potash. 

Climate. — In summer the temperature often rises to 100 degrees. Winters 
are cold, lasting from end of November to middle or end of March. The 
atmosphere is clear and dry owing to the altitude, 1,500 to 3,000 feet. 
Snowfall is light. Bright sunshine is the rule. 

Latitude. — The British Isles lie in the same latitude as the province of 
Saskatchewan. Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, the greater part of 
Germany and about half of Russia, are as far north as Regina. Edinburgh is 
farther north than any of the settled parts of Saskatchewan. St. Petersburg, 
Russia, and Christiana, Norway, are in the same northern latitude as the 
northern boundary of Saskatchewan. 

Telephones. — An important adjunct to farm life is the rural telephone. 
With these Saskatchewan is well provided. 

Government reports on Saskatchewan telephones show the wire miles of 
long distance system have increased from 3,280 in 1910 to 15,760 in 1915, the 
exchanges from 20 to 99, toll offices from 100 to 311. Rural lines are 
rapidly being constructed as needed, and receive assistance from the Provin- 
cial Government. 



30 



CANADA WEST 




O S ij \jjP D „ Q 1 ' 





Farm Buildings Similar to these May be Found in all Parts of Alberta 

ALBERTA 



100,000,000 ACRES OF ARABLE LAND 

AVERAGE WHEAT 36.16 BUSHELS — OATS 57.33. 

A Vast Plateau 2,000 to 3,000 Feet Above Sea Level 




BARLEY 34.83 



THERE probably never was in the history of any country covering such a large area, with an acreage 
of less than 4 million acres, such an abundant yield recorded. Below are given reports from a number 
of districts of the province from two to three hundred miles apart, showing phenomenal yields of wheat 
upwards of 70 bushels per acre. Of course there have been smaller yields than those reported, but when the 
general average of 36.16 bushels of wheat per acre is considered, it is quite evident that the small yield has 
been the exception rather than the rule. It is not in wheat alone that these immense yields have been given, 
but oats have gone 130 bushels to the acre. Hardly a district shows a wheat average of under 30 bushels. 



It must be apparent, that if one farmer in a locality can get 50 bushels 
an acre of wheat, other farmers with the same soil, climate and conditions, 
should be able to get the same yields if they are equally good agriculturists. 
In the long run it comes down pretty much to the man's own ability. Be- 
low will be found some of the yields. 

Reid Hill. — Mr. O. L. Wooters had a yield of 57 bushels to the acre from 
his summer fallow; Mr. James Dann from 60 acres of stubble got 2,382 
bushels of Red Fife, an average of 48 bushels to the acre. 

In conversation with Mr. Paul Norton, who is doing a lot of threshing 
in the Reid Hill district, he says that of eight places on which he threshed, 
the yields were from 40 to 57 bushels per acre. 

Alston. — Mr T. Lawrence, had a yield of 60 bushels to the acre from 
40 acres of summer fallow. 

High River. — Mr. Peter Peterson's wheat went 55 bushels to the acre. 
Mr. A. C. Middleton had 47 bushels of wheat to the acre off fall ploughing. 
Fred Mensinger's summer fallow yielded him 66 bushels of wheat to the 
acre. W. Myers and Joe Spanke, from breaking got 56 bushels and 51 
bushels respectively. Oats, S. E. Taylor had 105 and J. W. Johnston 134 
bushels. 

Tom Margetts, had 25 acres of oats from which he obtained 3,350 bushels, 
average 134 bushels per acre. From the balance of his crop, 175 acres, he 
garnered 21,875 bushels, which made an average of 125 bushels to the acre. 

Woolchester district threshed 54 bushels an acre from 36 acres of wheat. 
Forty-nine acres wheat averaged 58 bushels per acre; 200 acres wheat part 
of which was on stubble, yielded 8,600 bushels; 230 acres yielded 9,200 
bughels. 

Bassano. -Robert Comer, threshed 70 acres of wheat on irrigated land 
which yielded an average of 54 bushels to the acre. Five acres of wheat 
grown on land that was planted to potatoes a year ago yielded an average 

of 69 bushels per 
acre. Mr. Rolism 
had 100 bushels 
of oats per acre 
from a large field. 




Grassy Lake. — Over 20,000 bushels of wheat from about 570 acres is the 
crop of a local farmer here. Yield was over 35 bushels of wheat per acre. 
There is also reported a yield of 50 bushels per acre from 56 acres; 6,000 bushels 
from 260 acres; 10,000 bushels from 300 acres; 5,100 bushels from 130 acres; 
5,100 bushels from 100 acres. 

Gus Schmidt had 100 bushels of oats per acre, Ed Johnson 95, and Walter 
Gwilliam had 39y 3 bushels of wheat from 130 acres. 

Burdett, Alta. — A farmer of this neighbourhood threshed an average of 
53 bushels an acre from 640 acres of wheat. The lowest yield recorded here 
was 28 bushels per acre of wheat. Gideon Olson had 56 bushels per acre; 
Lars Johnson 67 bushels; Mr. Elford got 69}^ bushels from a 60-acre field. 

Sherburn. — Hart Bros, had 51 bushels of wheat per acre from 100 acres. 

Brant, Alta. — Wheat 65 bushels to the acre and oats 135 bushels, grading 
No. 1 throughout and representing the crop, not of a hand-picked area but 
of whole section of land, are reported. 

Dan Richmond had 160 acres, summer fallow, and obtained 10,240 bushels 
of No. 1 Marquis wheat. On an adjoining quarter section which was fall 
ploughed, he obtained 8,320 bushels. The average was 52 bushels. 

What appears to be an incredible yield of wheat, is reported from the 
farm of Messrs. Bruer and Grieves. The field consisted of 43 acres of Marquis 
wheat and yielded 72 bushels per acre. 

Mr. Ernest Hanson had an average yield of 60 bushels per acre. 

Monarch, Alta. — Yield of wheat reported by threshers indicated that the 
majority of the fields ran about 50 bushels an acre. Oats also gave very 
heavy yields, one field reaching 138 bushels to the acre. One farmer, who 
had 1,000 acres under grain crop, had an average of 57 bushels, 45 lbs., of 
wheat, grading No. 1, per acre from a 160-acre field. 

B. Nykoff had 112 bushels per acre from a 55-acre field of oats. He also 
had 54 bushels of wheat per acre; N. Nykoff had 50 bushels from an 80-acre 
field, while N. H. MelchelPs crop ranged from 34 to 48 bushels per acre. 

Medicine Hat. — Two hundred thousand bushels of wheat were threshed 
from a 4,000-acre field near here. Forty-five bushels to the acre is also 
reported. 



CANADA WEST 



31 



ALBERTA'S AVERAGE YIELD OF WHEAT PER ACRE WAS 36.16 BUSHELS. 



Cr*lgm>le.— Two thousand nine hundred and twelve bushels of wheat 
was the crop taken ofT a 60-acre Held on Captain R. B. Eaton's farm, in the 
Craigm\le district. Although this land has been cropped for six years out 
of the past seven, the yield is a little over 48 1 L . bushels per acre, grading No. 1. 

Vermilion.— Mr. D. B. Winters and Sons, of Claysmore. threshed 55 
acres of wheat that produced 3,400 bushels, or 63 bushels to the acre; oats 
averaged 112 bushels per acre. 

Trochu.— Mr Telesbore Lemey of Trochu. threshed 2.500 bushels of 
wheat on 45 acres measured land, with affidavits available. This works 
out an average of 55?.,' bushels per acre, grading Xo. 1. 

MlUn.- Mr J. Cope of Munson. threshed a 
20-acre field of summer-fallowed land, yielding 58 
bushels per acre. 

Glefchen.— Big yields are not confined to small 
acreage. Mr. F. Corbel] of the Gleichen district 
threshed 17,000 bushels of wheat frdm 290 acres, 
yielding a little better than 58 bushels per acre. 

Field of oats yielded over 104 bushels per acre. 

Queenstown.— Mr. Walter Hoerle of Queenstown 
threshed 80 acres of Red Fife that averaged 51 
bushels, and 4) 2 measured acres of Marquis wheat 
which yielded 83H bushels per acre. Land and 
measurements guaranteed. 

Nanton. — J. H. Garbutt of Nanton, threshed 80 
acres of Marquis wheat, which averaged 52 bushels per acre. 

W. H. Reed of Nanton, threshed 90 bushels of oats per acre. 

J. R. Eckert had 150 acres of wheat on stubble disced last fall and drilled 
last spring, that averaged 40 bushels. 

Lethbridge.— The Provincial Jail Farm at Lethbridge, threshed 3.918 
bushels of Marquis wheat from 75?.» acres, an average yield of 51.72 bushels 
per acre. Included in the above was one field of 24.72 acres which yielded 
1,503 bushels, or an average yield of 60.8 bushels per acre. 

Prospy. — Mr. A. G. Kendall of Prospy district. Township 7, Range 8, 
reports having threshed three measured acres which yielded 8IJ4 bushels per 
acre, also a field of 43 acres, which averaged 53 li bushels wheat per acre. 

In the same district Mr. T. N. Sprinkle reports 58 bushels per acre. 

Nobleford. — At Nobleford Mr. Noble reports having threshed a 90-acre 
field of oats which averaged 111 bushels and 23 pounds to the acre. His 
summer-fallow averaged 120 bushels of oats. A yield of wheat is reported 
from here as going 49 bushels and 40 pounds from a 63-acre field. 

Baron. — In the 
Baron district, Arie 
Versluis received 54 
bushels per acre of 
No. 1 from a 1 60-acre 
patch 

Mr. FinKe, in the 
same district, received 
70 bushels per acre 
from a measured 8- 
acre field. He also 
received 120 bushels 
of oats per acre from 
85 acres, and 85 bush- 
els per acre of barley 
from a 60-acre field. 

Carmangay. — Mr. 
J. W. Rosenberger 
threshed 5.100 bush- 
els wheat from 99 
acres. 

Brooks. — A field 
of Marquis wheat, on 
the estate of the Duke 
of Sutherland gave 
69 bushels per acre. 
This field had special 
attention in the mat- 
ter of cultivation, but 
other land on the 
same farm with only 
ordinary cultivation 
averaged 50 bushels 

of wheat per acre. Another farmer threshed from 160 acres 9,467 bushels 
of wheat, an average of 59 bushels per acre. On a "stubbled-in" field, 
an average of 30 bushels per acre was the return from a 400-acre field. A 
farmer with 900 acres had an average of 40 bushels of wheat, another had 
42 bushels of wheat and 84 bushels of oats. A thresher here says the lowest 
he threshed in 1915 was 37 bushels per acre. 

Plncher Creek. — A claim is made that a 100-acre field of spring wheat 
produced 62.000 bushels and another field of 200 acres yielded 1 1 .000 bushels. 

On one farm wheat went slightly better than 60 bushels per acre; one 35- 
acre plot of oats made a record of 120 bushels. 



TAXATION IN CANADA 

The Additional War Revenue 
required in Canada is raised by 
increase in Customs tariff, taxation 
of banks, loan companies, a tax 
on railway and steamship tickets, 
telegrams, postal matter, patent 
medicines and proprietary articles, 
AND NOT ONE CENT OF WAR 
TAX is levied on lands. 




Barley is one of the best paying crops in Western Canada. It is largely grown for feed, taking 
the place of corn as a fattening product. 



Sterling. — A farmer here says he had 20.000 bushels of wheat from 500 
acres. This crop was sold early for ff 16,400, a gross return of *32. 80 per acre. 

Magrath. — Eleven thousand bushels of oats from a 100-acre field is 
reported. The farmer who grew these has taken a total of $70 per acre from 
his land in two years. Bert Ackeberg had 66 bushels wheat per acre. 

Three Hills. — A field of Marquis wheat by actual weight and measurement 
yielded 63 bushels 40 pounds per acre. 

Milk Kiver. Alberta.— Twenty acres here yielded an average of 62H 
bushels of wheat to the acre. This land had formerly had a crop of peas and 
was in a high state of cultivation. 

From a " volunteer" crop a field of 100 acres yielded 
2,300 bushels of wheat, an average of 23 bushels per 
acre. Wheat sown on cultivated land averaged 41 
bushels per acre. 

New Dayton. — A farmer here got an average of 30 
bushels per acre from an 800-acre field of spring wheat. 

Tofield.— Threshing indicates that the average 
wheat yield of the district was 35 bushels per 
acre; oats, 70. 

Provost. — Wheat yielded 30 bushels per acre, oats 
70. barley 60. 

Lacombe. — Areas and yields carefully measured, 
leaving no latitude for crops this year. Areas and 
yields carefully measured, leaving no latitude for 
guess-work, show wheat crops running as high as 72 bushels per acre. The 
yields of grain, as reported by threshers in all parts of the country, are remark- 
ably high, and probably constitute record crops for the West. Returns of 
over one hundred bushels of oats to the acre are frequently reported, and 
yields of wheat of 50, 60, and even 70 bushels to the acre have been secured. 

Aldersen.— In the Aldersen district, Mr. Potter received 67 bushels of 
wheat to the acre from 23 acres, and 40 acres that yielded 62 bushels. 
Lemsford.— B. R. Talbot, 74 bushels per acre of wheat from 31 acres. 
Calgary.— Wm. Miller says: "My oats run from 65 to 85 bushels per 
acre, barley from 44 to 60 bushels, and spring wheat 35 bushels. Once or 
twice the wheat got a little touch of frost but not enough to hurt. 

"As to climate I might say in a word: You cannot beat it, take it all year 
round. We have cold snaps in winter, but as a rule they do not last long, 
and as to being healthy, I have lived around here 33 years now and I have 
never had a doctor prescribe for me. I got married 24 years ago and my 
wife and I have raised a fine healthy family of nine sons and two daughters, 

and why should we 
not feel content in 
such a country as this 
where the sun shines 
almost 365 days a 
year? My wife and I 
are young and strong, 
enjoying the best of 
health and glad that 
our paths led us to 
this happy land." 

Foremost. — A 
farmer at Foremost, 
Alberta, had a yield 
of wheat which he 
expected would yield 
35 bushels per acre, 
but when threshed, 
this field actually 
yielded 51 bushels 
per acre. Yields of 
40, 50 and even 60 
bushels per acre of 
wheat are reported 
from many districts. 

Vulcan. — Wheat 
yields reported here 
include 61 bushels 
per acre on summer 
fallow, 39 on stubble 
and 47 on spring 
ploughing; oats ran 

to 110 bushels. Se\enty-eight acres of Marquis wheat produced 4,688 bushels, 
an average of a little over 60 bushels an acre. On the same farm, oats w hich 
had been sow n on stubble yielded 100 bushels per acre. One hundred and 
forty acres of wheat which had been "stubbled in" averaged 53 M bushels per 
acre; 60 acres of breaking averaged 60'A bushels per acre; a 75-acre field, 
partly summer fallow and partly fall ploughing, averaged 45 bushels to the 
acre; other crops show averages of 50, 51 and 57 bushels per acre. 

Millet.— One farmer averaged 35 to 38 bushels per acre with his wheat. 

Keoma.— Among the yields at Keoma, Alta.. 20 acres of Marquis wheat 
is reported to have averaged 70 bushels, 42 acres making 59, and another 
20 acres averaged 70 and a 10-acre field 63 bushels per acre. 



32 



CANADA WEST 



RICHNESS OF ALBERTA'S SOIL TOLD IN CROP RETURNS 



Hot law. — An 80-aore field of wheat near Retlaw, Alta., averaged 48 
bushels per acre, a 75-aere field 43 bushels and a 70-acre field 40 bushels. 
J. Joslin, near here, threshed 60 bushels No. 1 hard, from 24 acres, and 41 
bushels to the acre from 140 acres. 

Tabor. — A fanner here, formerly from Spokane, reports securing 15,000 
bushels of wheat from a half-section of land, or an average of over 
46 bushels per acre. Another farmer got 60 bushels of wheat per acre, and 
another 50 bushels spring rye and 97 bushels barley per acre; another farmer 
got 39 bushels per acre, while a neighbour got 40 bushels. 

RedclifTe. — A farmer near here threshed 4,200 bushels 
of wheat from 75 acres, an average of 56 bushels. An- 
other man threshed 450 acres of wheat which yielded 
19.000 bushels, or an average of over 42 bushels per 
acre for the entire crop. 

Raymond. — One wheat field here averaged 54 bushels 
per acre, another 55, another 53, and several went over 
50. Henry Holmes, who captured first prize for his 
bushel of Marquis wheat at the Dry Farming Congress 
in 1912. took an average of 52 bushels an acre off a 40- 
acre field. 

Warner.— A 300-aere field averaged 47 bushels per 
acre of wheat. Six thousand seven hundred bushels of 
oats were threshed from a 65-acre field. Ten acres of 
oats yielded 1,100 bushels, an average of 110 bushels per 
acre, and a small plot of fall wheat yielded 50 bushels 
per acre. 

Macleod. — Jas. Beattie had 69} (. bushels of wheat 
from a 26-acre field. A farmer near here grew 8,000 
bushels of wheat which went 63 bushels to the acre. 

Daysland. — Some of Jas. A. Benner's wheat went 
over 40 bushels to the acre. J. H. Wagner had over 90 
bushels of oats to the acre, and of wheat he had over 40 
bushels per acre. . 

S. A. Tofthagen had 23 acres of wheat which gave 47 bushels to the acre. 
Lcthbridge. — Wheat crops from 107 farms in Southern Alberta show 
an average of 53 bushels per acre; some of the fields included were small 
in area but others took in whole farms. Among the total were 300 acres 
which averaged 52 bushels; 100 acres which averagedj60; 320 acres 61 bushels; 
175 acres 55 bushels, and 500 acres 52 bushels. Thirty-one acres of 
summer fallow yielded 2,292 bushels, an average of 74 bushels per acre. 
Three measured acres of wheat yielded 245 bushels, an average of 81J4 
bushels per acre. A field of 43 acres averaged 53J^ bushels. A 1-acre 
tesl plot Of Marquis wheat yielded 99 bushels, and a 34-acre field averaged 
60J4 bushels. There are on this farm 200 acres of Marquis wheat which 
it Is expected will average over 50 bushels per acre. 

A 25-acre field at Lethbridge yielded 1,503 bushels of wheat, an average 
of a trifle over 60 bushels to the acre. The wheat weighed 67 pounds to 
the bushel. A field of 150 acres of oats yielded 15,528 bushels, an average 

of about 103 bushels per acre; one- 
third of this crop was from spring 
breaking, the balance from land 
broken in the summer of 1914. 

Mr. L. A. Felger, manager of the 
Ohio Alberta Farming Company, 



PENNSYLVANIANS WELL PLEASED WITH WESTERN CANADA. 
Voices from Pennsylvania Sound its Praises. 

Harrisburg, Pa. — F. A. Harrison, Canadian Government Representative, 
says: "I am getting personal letters from some of the farmers who went to 
Western Canada from this district in the spring of 1915 and they are all well 
pleased with the results obtained during the first year. One farmer writes that 
he averaged 54J2 bushels of wheat from 32 acres; 104 bushels of oats per acre 
from 18 acres. These crops were obtained from land that had been cultivated 




Pure-bred stock of Western Canada is fairly 
well shown in the illustration below 




Looking them over before sending them to market 
A splendid bunch of grass-fed "critters" 



the previous year. Another Pennsylvania 
farmer who went to Western Canada in 
March put 64 acres of grain in newly broken 
prairie. His oats averaged 45 bushels, bar- 
ley 39, and wheat 27J4- He did so well 
that two of his brothers and a cousin are 
planning to go in the spring of 1916." 

From $6.00 to $32,000.00. — M. A. Lowry, of Taylorville, Alberta, says: " I 
came to Alberta sixteen years ago last April, with only $6.00 after our fare and 
expenses were paid. I now have six one-quarter sections of good farm land (960 
acres), 400 acres under cultivation. Have an 8-room house costing $1,600.00, 
a hay barn with capacity of 101 tons of hay and will stable 36 head of stock; 
other buildings worth at least $900. Have harnesses for 18 head of work horses, 
2 complete sets of machinery except one field cultivator, one threshing machine. 
All in good condition and all paid for except $90.00. I have 172 cattle, 54 
horses, 40 hogs, 74 sheep, a nice variety of poultry. My land is worth $25.00 
per acre or $24,000.00. There is against this land as payments not due and 
loans $5,000.00. My live stock and machinery would sell for $13,000. 

The first two years in Alberta I was obliged to work out considerably, 
not having horses to farm with, but with the aid of my wife we raised good 
gardens and got sale for a lot of the garden stuff. It is hard to beat Alberta 
for gardens. I soon saw the beauty of this country for mixed farming, and 



geven miles south of Lethbridge, reports 20 acres of oats yielding 1 15K bushels 
to the acre. He also had wheat yielding from 65 to 75J-3 bushels per acre 
.according to methods of cultivation. A 3-acre plot of Irrigated land at the 
Government Experimental Station gave an average of 76 bushels of Khakov 
wti' Mt to the acre and it weighed 67 lbs. to the measured bushel; a field of 
Marquis wheat at same place yielded 65 bushels an acre. From 175 acres 
one farmer threshed 9,600 bushels of wheat — over 54 bushels per acre. 

A grain expert here believes that the average yield of hard wheat in 
Southern Alberta this season, between Calgary and the International Bound- 
ary, will reach 40 bushels an acre, establishing a record w hich cannot be 
beaten on the entire continent. 



turned my attention in that direction, beginning with 
hogs as they were the easiest to stock up with. I got a 
few calves and colts as fast as I could and held to these 
until they were grown. Our milk cows and poultry 
practically serve our table. 

It is a pleasure to live in Alberta compared with any 
other country I have been in. The climate is just rigid 
enough in the winter and warm enough in the summer, 
with cool nights, to keep us vigorous and well. Consump- 
tion and such diseases are almost unknown. Out of a 
family of eight children, wife and myself, we have never 
suffered any inconvenience from any kind of disease. 
We have excellent schools, and due to the Government 
being strict to enforce what is known as the "Lord's 
Day Act," which prohibits work on Sunday, the church 
is usually well attended. 

In our schools here the Government furnishes all read- 
ers free up to the fourth and compels children to go to 
school to the age of 13. 

WAR DOES NOT AFFECT FARMERS 

Peter Larson, of Dalroy, Alberta, writes: "I arrived in Alberta in July, 
1912 coming from Nebraska, and purchased a half-section of land east of 
Calgary. In the season of 1913 I had 240 acres in crop and threshed 10,000 
bushels of wheat, oats and barley. In 1914 I had 300 acres in crop, and 
threshed 9,000 bushels of grain. At the time of writing my crop for this 
season is not threshed. So far as the climate is concerned, my family and 
myself like it very much. . „ 

"The fact that C anada is taking a part in the present war does not affect 
the farmer, either in increased taxes or otherwise, excepting that we are 
receiving better prices for the stuff we have to sell, and therefore making more 
. money than before." 



CANADA 



WEST 



33 



YIELDS OF ALBERTA WHEAT AND OATS SEEM UNBELIEVABLE 



500 Acres Wheat A>eraged 51 Bushels.— John Foreston of New Dayton, 
Alberta, before a Notary Public swore he had 47 bushels of wheat to the acre 
from 200 acres. H. G. Stinson of Foremost, Alberta, gave an affidavit that 
his 44 acres of wheat averaged 60 bushels to the acre. F. J. Morrison cf New 
Dayton. Alberta, signed a sworn statement that he had 51 bushels to the acre 
from 500 acres. 

Made $'»5,000.00 in 10 Years.— " I came here in 1903 and honiesteaded. 
After four years I t>ought another quarter and three years after that I bought 
four more quarter-sections, making now in all 960 acres of land. I had 6 
horses and 6 cows when 1 came here. I now have 65 horses, 35 head of 
c.iitle. 5 hogs. 1 have 75 acres in cultivation. 1 have made $25,000 since 
1 came here. I would advise anybody to come here. 

Andrew B. Nelson, Holden, Alta." 

Made $1?.0©0.00. Would Not Sell.— When I came here in 1903 I home- 
steaded One-quarter of railroad land. 1 had 3 horses. 8 head of cattle. After 
getting settled I had only $25 in my pocket to start on. Now I have 140 
acres under cultivation. I have 30 head of cattle and have sold a number 




Poultry Pays the Grocery Bill. 

every year. I have 100 chickens, 50 hogs. I have made money in the 
Holden District. I am now worth at least $12,000. The Holden District 
suits me and I am going to stay in it. J. M. Andrews, Holden, Alta." 

FODDER CROPS 

Alfalfa. — Many ranchers in Alberta are sowing this crop on an extensive 
scale. At the Experimental Farms at Lethbridge and Lacombe an average 
of three tons of cured hay per acre has been obtained from non-irrigated lands 
in one crop, and two or three crops can be obtained in a year. From these 
stations alfalfa seed has been distributed. 

As an illustration of the success of this fodder, it was a Maple Creek, 
Alberta, farmer who carried off the first, second and sweepstakes prizes at 
the Dry Farming Congress at Denver, in the fall of 1915, at w hich exposi- 
tion there was shown excellent samples of three cuttings in one year. 

Clover. — The little white clover grows profusely everywhere. Alsike and 
red varieties succeed wherever tried. Timothy does well. A good market 
at from $18 to $20 per ton. 

Corn Raising in Alberta. — Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. — Ensilage corn 
10 feet high is this town's claim to be included in the corn-belt. It was planted 
June 8th and cut September 8th on a farm in 
this district. 

A field of corn near Medicine Hat yielded 
40 bushels per acre in 1915. 

At the Cardston, Alberta, exhibition in 1915 
great interest was centred in the corn exhibit. 



There were stalks of North Western Dent that measured nine feet, taken from 
a field that yielded eighteen tons to the acre. 

Nineteen farmers around Taber, Alberta, had successful plots of sweet 
corn averaging one to twenty-five acres each. Their success indicates that 
corn will become an important crop in this district. 

OTHER AUTHENTIC YIELDS REPORTED FROM DIFFERENT 
PARTS OF ALBERTA IN 1915. 





WHEAT 


OATS 








/\tre 


nr i\Lro 


Rlddellvale — R B Kiddell 


110 


51 


40 




f i / ■ \ • r~\/~i ,i -i i ii 


1 1 A 


4o 


Oft 


80 


t'amrosc — F I Farlcv 


60 


34 50 


12 


73 


Ridgedotigh — Campbell Bros. 


35 


40 


20 


77 25 


Scotstown — R S Tod 


13 


44 33 






R. S. Tod 


15 


47 






Hanna J. W. Taylor."." ""II"" 


OA 
£U 


30 


14 


80 


G. A. Burns... 


300 


35 


60 


65 




200 


34 






Innisfree — S. D. Horgan 


880 


35 


250 


70 


Richdale— W. A. Pinkerton 


90 


37 


50 


54 


B. Hall 


40 


33 


7 


70 


S. W. Jackson 


32 


47.9 


25 


72 


E. T. Coghlan 


65 


24.3 


30 


89 


J. McCluskey 


55 


43 


40 


75 


E. S. Stafford 


42 


54 


35 


80 


E. S. Stafford 


48 


35 






J. Burns 


30 


43 8 


10 


81.5 


McNaUy— T. Moran 


580 


35 


40 


95 


Vegrevllle — E. B. Wagar 


39 


51.20 


25 


59 


H. Trenhaile 






55 


77.50 


Hawkdale— W. Havden & Sons 


25 


70.33 


25 


55 


W. Havden & Sons . 


40 


40 50 






Youngstown — A. W. Lyster 


50 


41 


40 


55 


Lamont — R. J. Torrie 


90 


30 


195 


50 


J. Alton 


70 


30 


70 


50 


H. Schultz 


48 


32 


78 


41 




A Paying Western Farm. — A sample of the productiveness of Canadian 
farm lands is found in the experience of Mr. D. H. Engle of Humboldt, Iowa, 
who owns a quarter-section in Gleichen, Alberta, He rented this quarter on 
the basis that the renter w as to furnish everything except threshing and haul- 
ing, and one-third of the net receipts were to go to the owner. Although only 
80 acres were in crop, Mr. Engle received a profit of $612.65, which was his 
net rental of the land for one season. 

ALBERTA'S THREE DIVISION'S 
Northern Alberta.— North of the end of steel extends 75 per cent of this 
rich province, yet unexploited. When the railways push into Athabaska and 
Peace river districts it will be realized that Alberta owns an empire north of the 
Saskatchewan, a country set apart by nature to provide homes for millions of 
agrarian people, when the plains to the south are filled up. This northern 
portion varies from great open stretches of prairie land to .heavily timbered 
regions, the whole watered by majestic rivers. The banks of these rivers are 
usually covered for miles back with dense timber — spruce and cottonwood 
predominating. 

Central Alberta extends from Red Deer river northward to the height 
of land between the Saskatchewan and the Athabaska. Its great wealth is in 
its deep black humus varying in depth from ten inches to three feet, overlying 
a warm subsoil. 

The northern and western portions of Central Alberta have some "brush" 
land with soil equal to that of the open prairie. The cost of clearing is slight, 
and there is the advantage of shelter for cattle, and an absolute assurance of 
splendid water. There is a good market for the fuel and timber obtained in 
clearing. Practically all of the land between Edmonton and 
Athabaska — and between Edmonton and LaBiche to the northeast 
— has been subdivided for homesteading. 

Southern Alberta is open and rolling, and devoid of timber 
except along the streams and the Rocky Mountains' foothills. The 
soil is a fertile loam. 





This Farmer Made His Money from Cultivating His Land Well in Western Canada. Could Anyone Desire More Complete Surroundings? 



34 



CANADA WEST 



ALBERTA PASTURES FURNISH BEEF READY FOR THE CHICAGO MARKET 



The climate is ideal, with pleasing summers and mild winters. Stock pasture 
in the open air during winter, grazing on the nutritive sun-dried grasses. The 
absence of timber in Southern Alberta is compensated for by the supply of coal. 

As a grazing country. Southern Alberta has had few 
equals, for the hills and valleys well watered, afford excel- 
lent pasturage Winter wheat sown on new breaking, or 
summer-fallowed land, from the middle of July to the 



with the previous year, according to the Dairy Commissioner for the province. 

For the year previous the butter output was a little more than 5,000,000 
pounds. For the year ending in October of last year the output from six 
creameries was 7,400,000 pounds of butter. And the most 
gratifying fact is that the prices were better. In addition 
to this a lot of cheese was manufactured. Also this fact of 
a greater butter output indicates that the farmers are going 




end of September, is ready for harvest from the 1st to the 15th of August 
In the following year. Climate and soil make this an ideal wheat-growing 
district. Considerable spring wheat is grown, as well as oats, barley and flax. 
The production of sugar-beets compares favourably with that of Germany and 
the world. 

Water for domestic and farm purposes is easily obtained at reasonable 
depth. In certain sections of the Canadian West, as in the American West, 
the soil is unexcelled for growing cereals, but the geographical location and 
relative position to the rain avenues is not advantageous, not only the requisite 
amount of rain but its conservation is essential to the growing of crops, and 
that is the meaning of "dry farming." This is being successfully followed 
In the southern portion of Southern Alberta. Some of the district can also 
be easily and successfully farmed by meansof irrigation. 

EDUCATION 

The organization of free district schools is optional with settlers, the Gov- 
ernment liberally supporting them. 

Every child in Alberta is given the opportunity of a good, free education. 
For the past three or four years schools have been opened up at the rate of one 
a day, and educational facilities range from the little wooden schoolhouse in 
a remote country district to the progressive new university at Edmonton. 

Any part of Alberta may be created into a publig school district, provided 
that it does not exceed five miles in length or breadth, and contains four per- 
sons resident, who would be liable to assessment, and eight children between 
the ages of five and sixteen. 

The Government has established free agricultural 
and domestic science schools for farmers' sons and 
daughters during the winter season. Demonstration 
Farms, which are in reality model agricultural schools 
for the neighbouring farmer, have been established by 
the Government at several points throughout the 
province. 

As a result of such liberal encouragement the farmers 
of Alberta become from year to year more thoroughly 
organized and up-to-date. Last year they owned and 
controlled 50 co-operative elevators, and next season 
will control 100, making arrangements as well for a 
more advantageous system of marketing their grain. 

Railways. — The province is exceedingly well served 
with railways, there being the Canadian Pacific, Cana- 
dian Northern, Grand Trunk Pacific, and their branches, 
as well as the Provincial government road building to 
the northwest. 

Government and Other Telephones. — The Government operates the 
telephone system, including about 9,000 miles of long distance wires, and 
12.000 miles of rural or farmers' lines, and pursues an active policy of stimulat- 
ing the organization of rural companies by giving as a bonus all poles required. 

Cattle Raising. — No less profitable than grain-growing in Alberta is 
cattle-raising. For the most part of the year they feed out-doors, and re- 
quire very little attention. There is plenty of water, and in the northern 
or central portion ample shelter. The wild grasses make the best of feed, 
but now a great many farmers are taking up the cultivation of the tame 
grasvs. With these they all do well, alfalfa being a special favourite. 
Excellent yields are always secured. 

t attle from the Macleod district recently commanded the highest figures 
at the Chicago markrt for range steers, and they not only brought the best 
price on the day of sale but also the best price for any cattle of same class 
last season. The shipment consisted of 280 head of range steers and the 
prices ran from $8.55 to $8.90 per 100 lbs. Seventeen of the steers averaged 
1,240 lbs each. This is the third year In succession that Macleod steers have 
been shipped to Chicago and have topped the market. 

Alberta's Butter Production.— The butter output of Alberta has in- 
creased approximately 2,000,000 pounds during the past year, as compared 



MILITARY SERVICE IN 
CANADA IS VOLUNTARY 

No man is compelled to join the 
army or serve in the trenches. 

Canada's military forces are 
composed entirely of volunteers; 
all men are free to serve or not 
serve, as they themselves decide. 

There is no conscription in 
Canada. 



in for mixed farming to a greater extent. This is true not only of the northern 
districts of the province, but throughout the whole province, notwithstanding 
that the southern part has in the past been mainly a grain-raising country. 
The province has 58 creameries. 

During the past season, one Edmonton firm paid the farmers of Hardisty 
district $7,200 for milk and cream and, as a local paper remarks, this is just 
so much "found" profit, as the cows pasture on the open prairie and there is 
little or no expense connected with their keep. v The prices paid for butter 
fat averaged about 24c per lb. Although the farmers have been very successful 
with their grain crops, they realize that the surest and most permanent pros- 
perity comes from mixed farming, and the dairy industry of the country, 
important as it already is, is only in its infancy. 

Fruit Growing. — Small fruits do well jn all districts. Crabapples, apples 
and plums are grown south of Edmonton. 

In Southern Alberta strawberries ripen in August and have an ex- 
cellent flavour. Heavy mulching in winter is necessary. 
Ripe strawberries were picked in open gardens in Medicine Hat on October 28. 
The postmaster at Hardisty picked 156 quarts of fine strawberries from a 
plot one-twentieth of an acre in extent, which proves conclusively the entire 
suitability of this country for small fruit cultivation. 

A settler at Beaver Lake ripened twenty melons in the open air, without 
glass protection. Many farmers are having good success with a special variety 
of crabapples, which is excellent for cooking and preserving and which it is 
claimed can be grown in any quantity. 

Spring Wheat. The leading varieties are Red Fife 
and Marquis, which grade hard and are known as 
Manitoba Hard Wheat. They fetch a higher price 
than any other varieties grown. The Marquis, a re- 
cent development, matures about 15 days earlier than 
Red Fife. 

Comparison Yield, Alberta and Western States. 

For the five years, 1908 to 1912 inclusive, the average 
yield of spring wheat per acre in Alberta and the Western 
States was as follows: Alberta, 20.6; Iowa, 16.4; Min- 
nesota, 16.2; Wisconsin, 14.7; Nebraska, 13; S. Dakota, 
11.4; N.Dakota, 11.5; Kansas, 8.9. 

Oats. — The central portion of the province is re- 
nowned for its superior quality of oats. In Edmonton 
district 50 to 60 bushels to the acre is ordinary, and 125 
bushels not uncommon. For four years the first prize 
grain at the Provincial Seed Fair has weighed not less 
than 48 lbs. to the bushel. The average yield per acre 
is 36.42 by measure; average weight over 45 lbs. per bushel. Barley, flax and 
rye are also very successful crops. 

Sunshine.— In the north, from June 1 to August 1 there are but two hours 
of darkness. The almost continuous sunlight causes very rapid fructification. 

Rainfall.— The greatest rainfall is in May, June, July and part of August— 
the growing season. The latter parts of August and September are dry. 
Alberta Soils.— Frank T. Shutt, M. A. F. I. C., Dominion Chemist, says: 
"It may be said that, as Southern Alberta is of the true prairie character, 
so Northern Alberta is largely wooded, enjoying a more liberal rainfall and 
is naturally a country better adapted to mixed farming. The soils of North- 
ern Alberta are for the most part characterized by high percentages of 
organic matter and nitrogen. 

Available Homesteads.— These are to be found west and north of Edmon- 
ton—territory made accessible by the Grand Trunk Pacific and the Canadian 
Northern Railways— in an immense stretch of splendid country. Wheat 
and oats are reliable crops. Rainfail is certain. Mixed farming is highly 
successful. The wild grasses and pea vine supply ample feed for stock; water 
is plentiful and easily secured. On into the foothills and the mountains are 
stretches of prairie land, through which the Grand Trunk Pacific and Canadian 
Northern railways are constructed. 



CANADA WEST 



35 




BRITISH COLUMBIA 

The "California" of Canada 
RICH IN NATURAL RESOURCES 
GRAIN, STOCK RAISING, FRUIT GROWING, MINING, LUMBERING, FISHING 



IT IS NOT so long ago that agriculture was regarded as quite a secondary 
consideration in British Columbia. The construction of railroads and 
the settlement of the valleys in the wake of the miner and the lumberman, 
have entirely dissipated that idea. The agricultural possibilities of British 
Columbia are now fully appreciated locally, and the outside world is also be- 
ginning to realize that the Pacific Province has rich assets in its arable and 
pastoral lands. 

As far north as the fifty-fourth degree it has been practically demon- 
strated that apples will flourish, while in. the southern belt the more delicate 
fruits — peaches, grapes, and apricots, are an assured crop. 

On a trip through the valley one sees apple orchards with the trees fairly 
groaning under their loads of fruit, and pear, plum, and prune trees In like 
manner. In many places be- 
tween the trees there are rows 
of potatoes, cabbages, and 
other vegetables, showing 
that the land is really produc- 
ing a double crop. Grapes, 
water-melons, and muskmel- 
ons also thrive in the valley, 
and large quantities of each 
are grown. Tomatoes, cher- 
ries, and berries of all kinds 
are grown extensively. 
Wheat, oats, and corn give 
excellent yields. As an in- 
stance, one man's wheat crop 
this season averages 4S'A 
bushels to the acre. Of 
prunes, one orchardist grew 
a crop of 7,000 boxes. The 
apples shipped find a ready 
market in Calgary, Regina, 
and in the other cities in the 
prairie provinces. Prices this 
year are considerably better 
than they were a year ago. 
Last year this valley produced 
350 carloads of fruit and 
vegetables, and some of the 
farmers have made net profits 
of as high as $250 an acre. 

Railways. — There are three 
transcontinental lines of railway running through this province and each has 
opened up a territory valuable for agriculture, mining and fishing, and also 
gjves opportunity for the tourist to view the most magnificent and awe- 
inspiring scenery on the continent. 

In the valleys, of which there are many, there are tracts of wonderfully rich 
land, largely of alluvial deposits, that give paying returns. 

The Columbia and Kootenay Valleys, comprising the districts of Cranbrook, 
Nelson, Windermere, Slocan, Golden and Revelstoke, are very rich. The 
eastern portion requires irrigation ; they are well suited to fruit farming and 
all kinds of roots and vegetables. Timber lands are said to be the best, when 
cleared. In the western portion of these valleys there are considerable areas 





The excellent quality of British Columbia fruit has 
found it a market in all parts of the world. Large 
shipments are now being made to Australia. 



of fertile land, suitable for fruit growing. The available land is largely held 
by private individuals. 

The valleys of the Okanagan, Nicola, Similkameen, Kettle, North and 
South Thompson, and the Boundary are immensely rich in possibilities. The 
advent of the small farmer and fruit grower has driven the cattle industry 
northward into the Central district of the province. The ranges are now 
divided into small parcels, occupied by fruit growers and small farmers. Irri- 
gation is necessary in most places, but water is easy to acquire. 

The Land Recording District of New Westminster is one of the richest 
agricultural districts of the province and includes all the fertile valley of the 
Lower Fraser. The climate is mild, with much rain in winter. The timber 
is very heavy and the underbrush thick. Heavy crops of hay, grain, and 

roots are raised, and fruit 
growing is here brought to 
perfection. The natural pre- 
cipitation is sufficient for all 
purposes. 

For about seventy miles 
along the Fraser River there 
are farms which yield their 
owners revenues from $4,000 
to $7,000 a year; this land 
is now worth from $100 to 
$1,000 an acre. As much as 
5 tons of hay, 120 bushels of 
oats, 20 tons of potatoes, and 
50 tons of roots have been 
raised per acre. 

Vancouver Inland, with 
its great wealth of natural 
resources and its commanding 
position, is fast becoming 
one of the richest and most 
prosperous portions of the 
province. Its large area of 
agricultural land is heavily 
timbered and costly to clear 
by individual effort, but the 
railroad companies are clear- 
ing, to encourage agricultural 
development. Most farmers 
raise live stock, do some dairy- 
ing and grow fruit. Grains, 
grasses, roots, and vegetables grow to perfection and yield heavily. Apples, 
pears, plums, prunes, and cherries grow luxuriantly, while the more tender 
fruits — peaches, apricots, nectarines, and grapes attain perfection in the 
southern districts when carefully cultivated. 

Central British Columbia, through which the Grand Trunk Pacific 
transcontinental line gives excellent service to settlers and business men, 
comprises the valleys of the Bulkley, Endako, Nechaco, Fraser, and Stuart, 
where there is considerable land inviting to the settler. The soil and climate 
of the valleys extending westward to the Bulkley are adapted to grain grow- 
ing and cattle raising, while further westward and to within fifty miles of 
the west coast belt apple culture as well is successful. 



38 



CANADA WEST 




Down the Fraser from Fort George there is active development in settle- 
ment, and wheat, oats, barley and hay are highly productive; the climate is 
good. The soil is a brown silt covered by a layer of vegetable mould, and the 
timber is light and easy to clear. 

Along the Nechaco, between Prince George and Fraser Lake, is same character 
of soil and a similar country, there being large tracts well fitted for general 
farming. Native grasses yield abundant food; there is ample rainfall, and the 
winter climate moderates as the coast is approached. 

North of Fort Fraser there is good grazing and farming 
land, somewhat timbered and covered with rich grasses. 
The prevailing price is $25 an acre; owners are not partic- 
ularly anxious to sell. 

Grain. — Wheat is grown principally in the Fraser, 
Okanagan, and Spallumcheen Valleys and in the country 
around Kamloops. Barley of excellent Quality is grown in 
many parts of the province. 
Oats are the principal grain 
crop, the quality and yield be- 
ing good, and the demand 
beyond the quantity grown. 
Potatoes, turnips, carrots, 
mangolds, and all other roots 
grow in profusion wherever 
their cultivation has been 
attempted. Hop culture is 
carried on in the Okanagan, 
Agassiz, and ChJUlwak dis- 
tricts. British Columbia hops 
command a good price in Eng- 
land, and recently Eastern 
Canada and Australia have 
bidforthem. Some attention 
has been given to the cultiva- 
tion of sugar-beets, tobacco, 
and celery, and in each case 
with the most gratifying 
results, ensuring an early 
expansion of operations in 
all of these lines. 

The annual total agricultural production of the province is about 145^ 
million dollars, but there is imported another 15 million dollars' worth. 

British Columbia agriculturists and fruit growers are particularly fortunate 
in having a splendid home market for their products, and for their surplus 
there is the enormous present and illimitable future demand of the prairie prov- 
inces, assuring always good prices and ready sale for everything they produce. 

Stock. — Dairying pays handsomely in British Columbia. The local demand 
for butter is constantly increasing and the prices secured are higher than in 
Eastern Canada. The province possesses many elements necessary to con- 
stitute it a great dairying country. There are extensive areas of pastoral land 
In the interior, while increased cultivation in the lower country will form the 
necessary feeding ground. With a plentiful supply of good water, and luxuriant 
and nutritious grasses, there is every required facility added. Cattle raising 
on a large scale was formerly one of the chief industries of the province, 
and many of the large ranches are still making money, but the tendency 
of late has been for smaller herds and the improvement of the stock. 

Sheep raising, is another branch of agriculture capable of great expansion. 
Hogs, in small farming, are probably the most profitable of live stock, 
owing to the general demand for pork, bacon, ham, and lard, and much 
attention is now being given to raising them. Over 1 million dollars of hog 
products are imported annually, and prices are always high. The demand 
for good horses, especially heavy draft 
and working animals, is always 
increasing, and prices are conse- 
quently high. 

Dairy Products.— This industry 
reaches a valuation of nearly 4 million 
dollars annually. Poultry raising is 
a branch of general farming which is 
beginning to receive special attention 
in British Columbia. The home mar- 
ket Is nowhere nearly supplied, neither 
with eggs or poultry, large quantities 
being Imported from Manitoba, On- 
tario, California, Washington, and 
elsewhere. Good prices prevail at all 
seasons of the year. Every portion 
of British Columbia is suitable for 
poultry raising. In the Coast dis- 
tricts, hens, ducks, and geese can be 
raised to great advantage, and the 
dry belts and uplands are partic- 
ularly w ell adapted to turkeys. 

Mineral Resources. — The pre- 
cious and useful metals abound in 
British Columbia, and it was the dis- 
covery of placer gold in the Cariboo 




One of the big assets of British Columbia is its supply of fir, pine, cedar 
and other woods. The Douglas fir grows to immense proportions. 
There remains in the Province supply sufficient for years to come. 



District that first attracted attention to the province. Occurrences of 
copper, gold, silver and lead ores are widespread, and mining is being car- 
ried on in those districts convenient to transportation facilities. Coal is 
extensively mined in Vancouver Island, in the Crow's Nest Pass district and, 
more recently, in the Nicola Valley region. Miners' wages are high, and 
there is usually a constant demand for workmen. The value of the mineral 
production last year was 32 million dollars, of which coal contributed 9 
million and copper 8 million dollars. 

Timber. — Next in importance, at the present time, 
are the timber resources. It is admitted that the largest 
remaining areas of first-class 
Wide ranges of luxuriant building timbers in the world 
grasses, a suitable climate, are in British Columbia. The 
and a wide market make lumber industry has increased 
dairying in British Columbia enormously of recent years 
highly profitable. owing to the demand from 

the rapidly growing prairie 
provinces. For many years 
to come it will have to un- 
dergo constant expansion to 
keep pace with the ever- 
growing needs of the untim- 
bered prairie regions. The 
principal woods are Douglas 
fir, cedar, spruce, tamarac, 
pine and hemlock. 

Fisheries. — This province 
has risen to the rank of the 
greatest fish-producing prov- 
ince in the Dominion. 
Besides its extensive salmon 
fisheries, it has lying within 
easy distance of the northern 
part of its coast line, ex- 
tremely rich halibut grounds, 
while herring are in great 
abundance all along its shores. 
These various branches of 
the fishing industry are being 
rapidly developed, but there is yet room for great expansion. The value of 
the fisheries of the provinces for 1913 amounted to about 11 million dollars. 

Climate. — Near the coast the average number of days in the year below 
freezing is fifteen; rainfall varies from 40 to 100 inches. Farther inland the 
average number of days in the year below freezing is sixty-five. The northern 
districts of Hazleton, Pearl River, Cassiar, and Atlin are somewhat colder. 
Ocean currents and moisture-laden winds from the Pacific exercise a moderat- 
ing influence upon the climate of the coast. The westerly winds, arrested in 
their passage east by the Coast Range, create what is known as the "dry 
belt" east of the mountains; the higher air currents carry the moisture to 
the lofty peaks of the Selkirks, and the precipitation in the eastern portion 
of the province is greater than in the central district, thus a series of alternate 
moist and dry belts is formed. The province offers a choice of a dry or 
moist climate, an almost total absence of extremes of heat and cold, freedom 
from malaria, and conditions most favourable. 

A Rich Province. — British Columbia coal measures are sufficient to supply 
the world for centuries. It possesses the greatest compact area of merchantable 
timber in the world. The mines are in the early stages of their development, 
and have already produced about 400 million dollars, of which coal con- 
tributed 122 million. The value of the mineral production in 1911 was 30 
million dollars. The fisheries return an average annual yield of nearly 10 

million dollars. British Columbia's 
trade, per head of population, is the 
largest in the world. The chief ex- 
ports are salmon, coal, gold, silver, 
copper, lead, timber, masts and spars, 
furs and skins, whale-oil, sealskins, 
hops, and fruit. 

How to get the Land.— Crown 
lands in British Columbia are laid 
off and surveyed into townships, 
containing thirty-six sections of one 
square mile in each. The head of a 
family, a widow, or single man over 
the age of eighteen years, and a 
British subject (or any alien upon 
making a declaration of his intention 
to become a British subject) may 
for agricultural purposes record any 
tract of unoccupied and unreserved 
crown land (not being an Indian 
settlement), not exceeding 160 acres 
in extent. 

Free homesteads are not granted. 
The pre-emptor of land must pay $1 
an acre for it, live upon it for two 
years, and improve it to the extent 
of $2.50 per acre. 



CANADA WEST 



39 



Settlers from United States Well 
Satisfied With Canada. 



Many of Them Had Returns of From $20 to $35 
per Acre in 1915 



THE reports given 
by former Amer- 
icans now resi- 
dents of Canada give 
convincing evidence of 
the satisfactory con- 
dition in which they are 
now placed. 

Mr. our Nyberg f Shell 
Lake. Sask.. for hi* first crop 
put in 17 acres of wheat anil 
is amply repaid for his labor. 
His neighbours got 25 and 35 
bushels. The soil, he says, 
"is of the very best quality. About two miles southwest of Shellbrooke there 
are several townships in w : hich most of the land is yet open for honiesteading. 
The .-oii is rich, but the land somewhat rolling and a little wooded in places, 
but not sufficient to interfere with farming. There is also plenty of good 
meadow-land We have a good Scandinavian settlement; are about 20 miles 
from railroad station— Leask or North Battleford — and I think this is a 
splendid place for new settlers." 

O. V. strand writes from Zealand ia. Sask.: "We 
have had the biggest crop ever raised here — wheat 
averaged over 40 bushels to the acre on stubble and 
summer fallow, and oats over 73 bushels on stubble, 
and prices are good." 

Mr. Hans Ellcsen, Granum. Alberta: "We got 
a fine crop this year — from 40 to 60 bushels of wheat 
per icre and the farmers are very well pleased with 
results, espeeiallv as prices are good." 

Mr. Henry Padberg of Muhlbach. Alberta, had a 
yield from 170 acres of over 3,600 bushels of wheat 
and 2.300 bushels of oats. On a farm near his place, 
where he had worked part of the time, they got 100,000 bushels of wheat and 
30.000 bushels of oats on 3,200 acres. 

Edward K. K^ani writes from Ratner, Sask., in December. 1915: "I 
returned a few days ago from a trip down to where I have been during thresh- 
ing time in order to make a little extra money. Where I worked, about 150 
miles southwest from Saskatoon, they had a most abundant crop. As an 
example, w ill mention that one farmer got 14.500 bushels this year. While 
traveling along the line from Elrose north 1 noticed such a great number of new- 
buildings added to the little towns — they contain the farmers' wheat — as the 
elevators were all full. Winter is here now, but up to date have had no cold to 
speak of. We have a little brush for protection and fuel. The settlers in this 
district got a fine crop, 
too. and have every rea- 
son to be satisfied. A 
new ehurch is being built 
in our community and 
we hope it will soon be 
completed." 

Mr. Dan Swanson 
writes from Kaiser, 
Sask., in September, 
1915. as follows: "We 
have had a dry and 
warm summer with 
some showers, which 
have helped the crops. 
We have fine wheat 
fields now and they are 
very valuable as the 
price on wheat is way 
up. A lot of the farm- 
ers were quite worried about how to get help to harvest the crop this fall, as 
a lot of our young men have gone to the war, but everything seems to turn 
out all right as a lot of men have come here from the States and there is no lack 
of help now. They are all happy to get work and are paid S3 per day and 
board. 

B. E. Skeith of New Dayton, Alberta, got an average of 48 bushels 
on 670 acres wheat. He worked during harvest (for the Miami Farming 
Co., Dayton, Alberta), where the average was 53 bushels of wheat per acre on 
4,000 acres. 

Pastor O. J. Saetre writes from Kincaid, Sask., in November, 1915: 
"The crop has been way above expectations here this year. A good deal 
is not. threshed yet in this district, though we have had a tieautiful fall, but 

the yield was so immense < up to 76 bushels 
per acre) that the threshers could not stand 
to do any more, but we are in hopes that 
the 2ood weather will continue yet a while 
until all is finished." 
Helge Amondson writes as follows 



There are thousands of Canadian 
farmers this winter visiting their old 
homes and friends in your state. Per- 
haps you know some of these. If so, 
ask them about the progress they are 
making in Canada. 



from Spalding, Sask.. in No- 
vember. 1915: " We got a 
fine crop in this distriet this 
year. The wheat went, from 
35 to 52 bushels per acre and 
oats from 70 to 90. and 
threshing is almost finished. 
Winter has set in with quite 
a little snow, but the weather 
is fine. It looks now as 
though we would have a rail- 
road here next summer " 

John P. My lire writes 
from Paddling Lake, Sask., 
on December. 1915, as fol- 
lows: "Paddling Lake is a 
post office. We have the 
best land one can find with a 
little timber on it. We got 
over 30 bushels of wheat and 70 bushels of oats per acre on new broken land 
We have four threshing outfits here now. We got potatoes this fall that were 
as big as any I ever saw, and cabbage as big as the head of an ox." 

Bernhard J. Johnson, living near Tribune, Sask., writes in December, 
1915: "Our little town of Tribune is not as large as Winnipeg but we can 
get anything we want here anyway. There are not many Scandinavians 
located in tow n, but a great number of them in the settle- 
ment in which I live, and there is room for more. 
Of course, most of the homestead land was taken up 
years ago, which shows that a good thing advertises 
itself. The land is good for all kinds of farming— as 
good as anyone could wish for. When I say that 
there is room for more Scandinavians in this district, 
I mean that good land can yet be bought at reasonable 
figures, but as soon as the war is over, there is no 
doubt but what land will go up in value." 



Report from one of Canada's German Settlements 

Bruno, SasK., January 10, 1916. 



Comparative Areas and Yields of Wheat, Oats and Barley in the Northwest Provinces 
for the years 1012-13-14-15. 



Provinces 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 




Acres 


Bushels 


Acres 


Bushels 


Acres 


Bushels 


Acres 


Bushels 


Manitoba— Wheat 


2,839,000 


63,017,000 


2,804,000 


53,331,000 


2,616,000 


38,605,000 


3,342,000 


84,282,000 


Oats 


1,348,000' 


57,154.000 


1,398,000 


56,759,000 


1,331,000 


31,951,000 


1,441,000 


65,263,000 




481, 000| 


15,826,000 


496,000 


14,305,000 


468.000 


9,828,000 


490,000 


16,543,000 


Saskatchewan— 


5,582,000; 


106.960,000 


5,720.000 


121,559,000 


5,348,300 


73,494,000 


6,838,100 


171,146,000 


Oats . . 


2,556.000; 


117,537,000 


2,755,000 


114.112,000 


2,520,000 


61,816,000 


2,937,000 


142,121,000 


Barlev. 


292,000. 


9,595,000 


332.000 


10,421,000 


290,000 


4,901,000 


287,000 


9,945,000 


Alberta— Wheat 


1,590,000, 


34,303,000 


1,512,000 


34,372,000 


1,371,100 


28,850,000 


1,563,700 


48,772,000 


Oats 


1,461.000; 


67,630.000 


1,639.000 


71,542,000 


1,502,000 


57,076,000 


1,912,000 


98,296.000 


Barlev 


187,000' 


6,170,000 


197,000 


6,334.000 


178,000 


4,806 000 


195.0110 


6.542.000 



Mr. C. J. Broughton. 
Canadian Government Agent, Chicago, 111. 
Dear Mr. Broughton: 

"Ten years ago I first met you and talked homesteading in Canada: with 
your advice I went to Bruno, Sask., picked out my homestead and stayed until 
November 1, 1915. Then came back for mv stock. I had a small sum of 
money w hen I left and to-day have 100 head of cattle, 15 head of horses, 320 
acres of land and improvements, everything paid for and clear. 

"The climate is most healthy and my wife and I are quite satisfied with 
everything. Am now a Canadian citizen though formerly a German from 
Illinois, and I want to say to you that there is a big German colony surrounding 

me and they are all well 

satisfied with their sur- 
roundings, and with the 
Canadian Government: 
all have done well. The 
thermometer goes 
pretty low at times — 
sometimes 35 to 40 be- 
low zero, but none of us 
from Illinois fear the 
cold as it does not seem 
to affect us as it did in 
Illinois — it is a dry 
cold. 

" This year our wheat 
averaged from 40 to 45 
bushels to the acre; oats 
from 60 to 70 bushels 
and prices very good. 
"Thanking you for 
your advice and help and hoping to see you at our home, I am, 
Yours truly, (Signed) 

Henry Deist." 



The above are Dominion Government figures. The figures given by the Provincial Government are higher than these. 



Thousands of Homesteads Available 
The natural resources of Western Canada are most varied and abundant; 
first and foremost is the soil, of which a well known English Agriculturist and 
Chemist, Professor Tanner, wrote: "Although we have hitherto considered 
the black earth of central Russia the richest in the world, that land now has 
to yield its distinguished position to the rich, deep, black soil of Western Can- 
ada." Other experts bear equally strong testimony to its value. Notwith- 
standing this, the amount of land under 
cultivation is not one-tenth of that 
available. There are at least 175,000 
homesteads open for settlement at the 
present time equal in quality to anything 
yet taken up 




Threshing forty-five bushels to the acre wheat in Western Canada 



40 



CANADA WEST 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

[PERTINENT QUERIES— EXPLICIT REPLIES] 



Owing to the number of questions asked daily, it has been deemed advis- 
able to put in condensed form, such questions as most naturally occur, giving 
the answers which experience dictates as appropriate, conveying the informa- 
tion commonly asked for. If the reader does not find here the answer to his 
particular difficulty, a letter to the Superintendent of Immigration, Ottawa, 
Canada, or to any Government Agent whose name appears on the inside of 
the front cover of this publication, will secure full particulars. 

1. Where are the lands to which reference is made ? 

In Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta in British Columbia. 

2. What kind of land is it ? 

The land is mostly prairie (except in British Columbia) and can be secured 
free from timber and stones, if desired, the soil being the very best alluvial 
black loam from one to two feet deep, with a clay subsoil. It is just rolling 
enough to give good drainage, and in places there is plenty of timber, while 
some is underlaid with good coal. 

3. If the land is what yon say, why is the Government giving it away? 
The Government, knowing that agriculture is the foundation of a progressive 

country, and that large yields of farm produce insure prosperity in all other 
branches of business, is doing everything in its power to encourage settle- 
ment. It is much better for each man to own his own farm, therefore a free 
fraii- of 160 acres is given to every man who will reside upon and cultivate it. 

4. Is it timber or prairie land ? 

The province of Manitoba has considerable open prairie, especially, in the 
southwest; towards the centre it is parklike with some timber belts in parts. 

The southern parts of Saskatchewan and Alberta are chiefly open prairie 
with growths of timber along the streams. As you go north or northwest 
about 20 per cent of the country may be said to be timbered. 

5. Then as to climate ? 

The summer days are warm and the nights cool. The fall and spring are 
most delightful, although it may be said that winter breaks almost into sum- 
mer, and the latter lasts until October. Winters are pleasant and healthful. 
There are no pulmonary or other endemic complaints. Snow begins to fall 
about the middle of November and in March there is generally very little. 
Near the Rocky Mountains the snowfall is not so heavy as farther east, and the 
chinook winds have a tempering influence. The absence of the snowfall would 
be regretted by the farmer. Nature has generously provided for every mile of 
the country, and there is really very little choice with the exception that 
farther west the climate is somewhat milder. 

6. Is there sufficient rainfall ? 

A sufficient supply can be relied upon. The most rain falls in May and 
June, when most needed. 

7. What are the roads like ? 

Bridges and culverts are built where needed, and roadways are usually 
graded up, but not gravelled or macadamized. The natural prairie road 
is superior to most manufactured roads and affords good travelling in ordinary 
seasons and every fall and winter. 

8. What sort of people are settled there, and is English generally spoken? 
Canadians, English, Scotch, Irish, French, and English-speaking Americans 

(who are going in, in large numbers), with Germans and Scandinavians. 
English is the language of the country and is spoken everywhere. 

9. Will I have to change my citizenship if I go to Canada ? 

An alien, before making entry for free homestead land, must declare his 
intention of becoming a British subject and become naturalized before obtain- 
ing patent for his land. In the meanwhile he can hold possession and exercise 
right of ownership. If not a British subject, he must reside three years to 
become naturalized. To become a British subject a settler of foreign birth 
should make application to anyone authorized to administer oaths in a Cana- 
dian court. An alien may purchase land from any of the railway or land 
companies and hold title deed without changing his citizenship. 

10. How about American money ? 

American money is taken everywhere in Canada at its face value. 

11. Can a man who has used his homestead right in the United States 
take a homestead in Canada ? 

Yes. 

12. If a British subject has taken out "citizen papers" in the United States 
how does he stand in Canada ? 

He must be "repatriated," that is, he must take out a certificate of 
naturalization, which can be done after three months' residence in Canada. 

13. What grains are raised in western Canada ? 

Wheat (winter and spring), oats, barley, flax, speltz, rye and other small 
grain?, and corn Is grown chiefly for silo purposes. 

14. How long does it take wheat to mature ? 

The average time is from 100 to 118 days. This short time is accounted 
for by the long hours of sunlight which during the growing and ripening sea- 
son, averages 16 hours a day. 

15. Can a man raise a crop on the first breaking of his land ? 

^ ' -. but it is not well to use the land for any other purpose the first year 
than for raising garden vegetables, or perhaps a crop of flax, as it is necessarily 
rough on account of the heavy sod not having had time to rot and become 
workable. Good yields of oats have been reported on breaking. 

16. Is there plenty of hay available? 

In many parts there is sufficient wild hay meadow on government or vacant 
land, which may be rented at a very low rental, if you have not enough on 
your own farm. Experience has proven that timothy, brome, clover and 
other cultivated grasses do well. Vields of brome have been reported from 
two to four tons per acre. Alfalfa under proper cultivation in many places 
gives successful yields. 

17. Do vegetables thrive and what kinds are grown ? 

Potatoes, turnips, carrots, beets, onions,' parsnips, cabbages, peas, beans, 
celery, pumpkins, tomatoes, squash, melons, etc., are unequalled anywhere. 

18. Can fruit be raised and what varieties ? 

Small fruits grow wild. The cultivated are plums, cranberries, strawberries, 
gooseberries, raspberries, currants. In British Columbia fruit growing of all 
kinds is carried on very extensively and successfully. 

19. About what time does seeding begin? 

As a rule farmers begin their seeding from the 1st to the loth of April, 
sometimes continuing well into May. The average yield of all grains in western 
Canada would be largely increased, did not some farmers unwisely do seeding 
until the middle of June. 

20. How is it for stock raising? 

The country has no equal. In many parts cattle and horses are not housed 
throughout the winter, and so nutritious are the wild grasses that stock is 
marketed without having been fed any grain. 

21. In what way can I secure land in western Canada? 

By bonvitcading, or purchasing from railway or land companies. The 
Dominion Government has no land for sale. The British Columbia Govern- 
ment sells land to actual settlers at low figures. 



22. Can I get a map or list of lands vacant and open to homestead entry? 

Yes, maps are published by the Department of the Interior, Ottawa, show- 
ing what lands are available up to a certain date. These are revised from 
time to time. Ask for Homestead map of province in which you are inter- 
ested. Grain production is also shown by maps. Ask for Cereal map of 
province. 

From these maps you may arrive at some conclusion as to what part of the 
country you would like full particulars about. Any Canadian Government 
Agent can then furnish you with complete information about the land avail- 
able in that particular locality. A diagram of any township, with the vacant 
lands marked, will be supplied free. A competent land guide can be obtained. 

23. How far are homestead lands from lines of railway ? 

They vary, but at present the nearest will be from 15 to 20 miles. Rail- 
ways are being built into the new districts. 

24. In which districts are located the most and best available homesteads? 
The character of homestead wanted by the settler will decide this. Very 

few homesteads are vacant in the southern districts; towards the central and 
northern districts of the provinces homesteads are plentiful. They comprise a 
territory in which wood for building purposes and fuel are plentiful. 

25. Is there any good land close to Rocky mountains? 

The nearer you approach the mountains the more hilly it becomes, and 
the elevation is too great for grain raising. Cattle and horses do well. 

26. If a man take his family there before he selects a homestead can he 
get temporary accommodation? 

At the following places the Government maintains Immigration halls with 
free temporary accommodation for those desiring such and supplying their own 
provisions. It is always better for the head of the family, or such member of it 
as may be entitled to homestead, to select and make entry for lands before 
moving family: 

Biggar, Brandon, Calgary, Caster, Cereal, Edmonton, Edson, Emerson, 
Entwistle, Gravelburg, Herbert, Kerrobert, Lloydminster, Lethbridge, Moose 
Jaw, North Battleford, North Portal, Prince Albert, Regina, Saskatoon, 
Strathcona, South Battleford, Swift Current, Tisdale, Unity, Vegreville, 
Vermilion, Viking, Virden, Wainwright, Wilkie, Yonkers. 

27. Where must I make my homestead entry ? 
At the Dominion Lands Office for the district. 

28. Can homestead lands be reserved for a minor? 

An agent of Dominion Lands may reserve a quarter-section for a minor 
over 17 years of age until he is 18, if his father, or other near relative live 
upon homestead or upon farming land owned, not less than 80 acres, within 
nine miles of reserved homestead. The minor must make entry in person 
within one month after becoming 18 years of age. 

29. Can a person borrow money on a homestead before receiving patent? 
No; contrary to Dominion Lands Act. 

30. Would the time I was away working for a neighbour, or on the 
railway or other work count as time on my homestead? 

Only actual residence on your homestead will count, and you must reside 
on homestead six months in each of three years. 

31. Is it permissible to reside with brother, who has filed on adjoining land? 
A homesteader may reside with father, mother, son, daughter, brother, or 

sister on farming land owned solely by him or her, not less than 80 acres, or 
upon homestead entered for by him or her not more than nine miles from 
entrant's homestead. Fifty acres of homestead must be brought under culti- 
vation, instead of 30 acres, as is the case when there is direct residence. 

32. How shall I know what to do or where to go when I reach there ? 
Make a careful study of this pamphlet and decide in a general way on the 

district in which you wish to settle. Then put yourself in communication with 
your nearest Canadian Government Agent, whose name appears on the second 
page of cover. At Winnipeg, and in the offices of any of the Dominion Lands 
Agents in Canada, are maps showing vacant lands. Having decided on the 
district where you will make your home, the services of a competent land 
guide may be secured to assist in locating. 

33. What is the best way to get there ? 

Write your nearest Canadian Government Agent for routes, and settlers' low 
railway rate certificate good from the Canadian boundary to destination for 
passengers and freight. 

34. How much baggage will I be allowed on the Canadian railways? 

150 pounds for each full ticket. 

35. Are settlers' effects bonded through to destination, or are they ex- 
amined at the boundary? 

If settler accompanies effects they will be examined at the boundary, with- 
out any trouble; if effects are unaccompanied they will go through to the 
nearest bonding (or customs) point to destination. 

36. In case settler's family follow him what about railway rates ? 

On application to Canadian Government Agent, settlers' low railway rate 
certificate will be forwarded, and they will be given the settlers' privilege. 

37. What is the duty on horses and cattle if a settler should want to take 
in more than the number allowed free into Canada ? 

When for the improvement of stock, free; otherwise, over one year old, they 
will be valued at a minimum of JI50 per head, and duty will be 25 per cent. 

38. How much money must one have to start grain farming and how little 
can he do with if he goes ranching? 

See "Success Achieved by Various Methods." Page 38 herein. 

39. How can I procure lands for ranching ? 

They may be leased from the Government at a low rental. Write for full 
particulars to Secretary of the Interior, Ottawa, Canada. See inside back 

cover. 

40. In those parts which are better for cattle and sheep than for grain, 
what does a man do if he has only 160 acres ? 

If a settler should desire to go into stock raising and his quarter-section of 
100 acres should not prove sufficient to furnish pasture for his stock, he can 
make application to the Land Commissioner for a lease for grazing lands for 
a term of tw nty-one years, at a very low cost. 

41. Where is information to be had about British Columbia? 
Apply to Secretary Provincial Bureau of Information, Victoria, B. C. 

42. Is living expensive? 

Sugar, granulated, "14 to 18 lbs. for $1, according to fluctuation of market. 
Tea, 30 to 50 cents a lb.; coffee, 30 to 45 cents a tb.; flour, $2.25 to $3.00 per 
98 lbs. Dry goods about eastern Canada prices. Cotton somewhat dearer than 
in United States, and woollen goods noticeably cheaper. Stoves and furniture 
somewhat higher than eastern prices, owing to freight charges. 

43. Are the taxes high? 

Taxes on occupied lands are very low being principally for schools, which 
run from J10 to S14.50 per quarter section. Other taxes are those largely 
controlled by residents of the municipalities. These vary in the different 
provinces, and arc such as hail insurance tax, telephone tax. There is also 



CANADA WE ST 



road work tax In the case of non-residents in Saskatchewan and Alberta 
an additional surtax is imposed. 

44. Does the Government tax the settler if he lets his cattle run on Govern- 
ment lands ? What about line fences ? 

The settler is not required to pay a tax for allowing his cattle to run on 
Government land, but it is advisable to lease land from the Government for 
haying or graiing purposes, when needed. If one fences his land, his adjoining 
neighbour has to stand a proportionate share of the cost of the fence adjoining 
his property, or build one-half of it himself. 

45. Where can a settler sell what he raises? Is there any competition 
amongst buyers, or has he got to sell for anything he can get? 

Grain is purchesed at ele.ntors and forwarded to the great markets in other 
parts of Canada, the United States and Europe. Canadian flour mills, oatmeal 
mills, ai d breweries use millions of bushels of grain annually. To the west 
and northwest of the prairie country lie mining regions, which are dependent 
upon the prairies for supplies and will to a great extent continue to be. 
Beef is bought on the hoof at the home of the farmer or rancher. Buyers scour 
the country in quest of this product. 

46. Where can material for a house and sheds be procured, and about 
what would it cost ? What about fuel? Do people suffer from the cold ? 

Though there are large tracts of forest in the Canadian west there are locali- 
ties where building timber and material is limited, but this has not proven any 
drawback as the Government has made provision that should a man settle on 
a quarter-section deprived of timber, he can, by making application to the 
Dominion Lands Agent, obtain a permit to cut on Government lands free of 
charge the following, vis.: 

(1.) 3,000 lineal feet of building timber, measuring no more than 12 inches 
at the butt, or 9,250 feet board measure. (2.) 400 roofing poles. (3.) 2.000 
fencing rails and 500 fence posts. 7 feet long, and not exceeding five (5) inches 
in diameter at the small end. (4.) 30 cords of dry fuel wood for firewood. 

The settler has only the expense of the cutting and hauling to his homestead. 
The principal districts are within easy reach of firewood: the settlers of Alberta 
and Saskatchewan are particularly favoured, especially along the various 
streams, from some of which they get all the coal they require, at a trifling cost. 
No one in the country need suffer from the cold on account of scarcity of fuel. 

47. Is it advisable to go into a new country during the winter months with 
uncertain weather conditions ? 

A few years ago, when settlement was sparse, settlers were advised to wait 
until March or April Now that so many have friends in western Canada 
there need be no hesitation when to start. Lines of railway penetrate most 
of the settled districts, and no one need go far from neighbours already settled. 
There is no longer the dread of pioneering, and it is robhed of the romance 
that once surrounded it. With farm already selected, it is perfectly safe, 
and to the prospective homesteader he can get some sort of occupation until 
early spring, when he will be on the ground ready for it. 



48. What does lumber cost ? 

Spruce boards and dimensions, about $20 per thousand feet; shiplap, $23 
to $2S; flooring and siding, $2."> up. according to quality; cedar shingles, 
from $3.50 to $4.25 per thousand. These prices fluctuate. 

49. What chance is there for employment when a man first goes there 
and isn't working on his land ? 

There are different industries through the country, outside of farming and 
ranching, such as saw mills, flour mills, brick-yards, railroad building in the 
.summer, and lumbering in the winter. The chances for employment are good 
as a large percentage of those going in and those already there farm so much 
that they must have help, and pay good wages. During the past two seasons 
from twenty to thirty thousand farm labourers have been brought in each 
year from the eastern provinces and the United States to assist in caring for 
the large crops. The capable and willing worker is sure to succeed in Canada 

50. Can I get employment with a farmer so as to become acquainted with 
local conditions? 

This can be done through the Commissioner of Immigration at Winnipeg, 
who is in a position toofier engagements with well established farmers. Men 
experienced in agriculture may expect to receive from $25 up per month with 
board aud lodging, engagements, if desired, to extend for twelve months. 
Summer wages are from $30 to $35 per month: winter wages $10 to $15. 
During harvest wages are higher than this. 

51. If I have had no experience and simply desire to learn farming in 
westsrn Canada before starting on my own account? 

Young men aud others unacquainted with farm life will find positions through 
the (iovernment officers at Winnipeg. Wages are dependent upon experience 
and qualification. After working for a year in this way, the knowledge acquired 
will be sufficient to justify you in gung into farming on your own account. 

52. Are there any schools outside the towns? 

School districts cannot exceed five miles in length or breadth, and must 
contain at least four actual residents, and twelve, children between the ages 
of five and sixteen. In almost every locality, where these conditions exist, 
schools have been established. 

53. Are churches numerous? 

The various denominations are well represented and churches are being 
built rapidly even in the most remote districts. 

54. Can water be secured at reasonable depth? 

In most places it can be had at from fifteen to forty feet, while in other 
places wells have been sunk to fifty or sixty feet. 

55. Where are free homesteads to-day, and how far from railway ? 

In some well settled districts it may be possible to secure one. but such 
chances are few. Between the lakes in Manitoba as well as north and south- 
east of Winnipeg. In the central portions of Saskatchewan, Alberta and west 
of Moose Jaw and Swift Current. A splendid homestead area is that lying 
north of Battleford, and between Prince Albert and Edmonton. One will 
have to go at least twelve or fifteen miles from a line of railway at present, 
but extensions will soon make many homesteads available. 



WHAT TO TAKE WITH YOU 

VALUABLE HINTS FOR THE MAN ABOUT TO START 



The newcomer may start for western Canada during any 
month in the year. 

Railroads earn' him to within a short distance of his new home. 

The country roads are pood and there is settlement in all 
parts, so that shelter is easily reached. 

Temporary provision is required for the family's arrival, when 
better may be made. 

If going in the winter months, it is well to have a pair of 
good strong sleds. 

As teams cost S5.00 a day take along your horses and do 
your own hauling. 

As they require care, write ahead to some livery barn for 
room. 

In shipping your horses have them loaded by the best shipper 
in your home town. 

For feeding on the way, put in two-by-four cleats breast high 
on the horses, and fix to fit the end of a stout trough which is 
dropped in, afterwards nailing on a top cleat. 

If they have been used to corn, take along twenty bushels for 
each horse, if possible, not only to feed along the way, but to 
use while breaking them in to an oat diet. 

You need both hay and oat straw on the cars. 

The new arrival may have to pay S7.00 a ton for hay and 40 
cents per bushel for oats. 

Railroad construction consumes lots of both, and not half the 
farmers take time in the fall to put up plenty of hay. 

Bring all the horses you can. 

Five big horses can pull a twelve-inch gang through the sod, 
but six can do it easier and you can use five on the harrow. 

You can hitch a team to a goat, or scrubber as they call them 
here, and lead them behind the drill, making your ground smooth 
and packing it lightly, as you put in the seed. 

If you have been intending to bring eight horses, bring twelve; 
if you were going to bring twelve, bring sixteen. 

The first two years on the new land is hard on horses, and 
you will need plenty. 

If you have any spare time or can get work, they bring in 
money. 

Two men in mind cleared over 8600.00 apiece doing outside 
work this last summer. They worked on the roads, in harvest 
and threshing, and received So.00 per day for man and team. 

One can get all the outside breaking one's team can do at 
$4.00 per acre, so horse power is the main thing. 

Take a supply of meat along, also lard, canned goods, and 
other things for your cellar. 



One settler took a sugar barrel packed with canned fruit, 
and had not a single can broken or frozen, wrapping each in 
a whole newspaper and then packing in between with old rags, 
worn out underwear, old vests and such goods as might other- 
wise be thrown away. 

Remember there is no old attic or store-room to go to on 
the new farm. 

Cooked goods are also good. 

In the cold weather roasted meat keeps well. 

Cookies keep fresh in a tin box. 

Bring your cows and also your cream separator. The latter 
will not sell for much and is useful here, as you have no place 
to store quantities of milk. 

Bring at least your two best cows with you on the journey. 

P.tck up a supply of groceries in such a way that you can get 
at them easily. 

Corn starch, tapioca and similar packages are easy to handle 
while moving, and a big box of such things make cooking easy 
for the first few weeks. 

Do not sell anything that can be used in your new farming. 
Old belts, singletrees, doubletrees, and such goods are worth far 
more away out on the prairies than on the old improved farm, 
and they will cost more there. 

Bring all sorts of tools and wagon gears with you; you will 
save money by doing so; anvil, drills, old bolts, and screws, etc., 
come in handy. 

Bring your stock remedies. You will be far from a veteri- 
narian. Boracic acid comes in handy, so does a medicine cabinet 
for the household, with carbolic salve, liniments, etc. 

One of the first things you will need is a hayrack, and you 
will not have time to build one before it is needed, so take the old 
one or build a new one and take it with you. It can be used for 
crating and for partitions and other purposes in loading the car. 
Make the sides of the rack quite close and have a solid bottom. 

Bring along your base-burner. Coil and wood are plentiful. 

So far from town one needs big supplies of kerosene, so bring 
a steel barrel that will not become leaky. You can buy oil 
cheaper by the barrel and it saves trouble. Also bring a good 
oil stove. It will do the baking and save hauling fuel in the long 
working season. / 

Have a sm ill tank made to carry water in the cars for the 
horses, to hold two barrels, about three feet in diameter and 
four high, the top soldered on, with a lid just large enough to 
get in a pail. It also will be useful to haul water for the house 
when you land.